Sunday, August 30, 2009

"Restless Explorations": Whitman's Evolving Spiritual Vision in “Leaves of Grass”

Editor's Note: The following essay deliberates upon the element of spirituality that pervades Whitman's poetry and examines how the poet sends across the message of spirituality, transcendentalism and mysticism in more than one ways through his poems. His quest for the unknown and the ultimate emphasis on the need for soul's embrace of the unknown over the known forms the bedrock of this comprehensive and well-researched writeup.

The spiritual dimension of American poet Walt Whitman's work has received no shortage of critical commentary. Whitman himself clearly saw his work as spiritual, going so far as to claim in his 1855 preface to the first edition of “Leaves of Grass” that the work of trie poet would soon come to supplant that of churches and priests. At the same time, he envisioned an expanded Leaves as a sort of "New Bible," and by 1872, in another preface to his lifelong project, concluded that his by now massive book of poems had "one deep purpose" above all others, "the religious purpose" (Collect461). Pondering possible titles early on for what would become “Leaves of Grass”, Whitman once wrote, "What name? Religiow Canticles" (Asselineau 221). Many contemporary readers seemed to agree with Whitman, hailing him as a prophet inaugurating a new religion. Whitman scholars David Kuebrich and David Reynolds both describe how some early readers of Whitman went so far as to find religious groups and, in at least one case in England, a church devoted to following his writings.

But the spiritual aspect of Whitman's project is complex, and it changes over time and in the nine editions ?? “Leaves of Grass”. The goal of this essay is not to define spirituality in Whitman specifically or to unravel components of his spiritual vision, but to argue instead that any acknowledgment of the power of Whitman's spiritual message needs to account for the way in which that message evolves through the expanded editions of Leaves, and how the poetry ultimately emphasizes the soul's embrace of the unknown over the known. For Whitman, the very process of questioning, searching, and existing in uncertainty is the vital element of spiritual health, as opposed to certainty of the soul's destination. In gauging his spiritual message, a reader should resist examining any period of Whitman's work, or any edition of Leaves, in isolation from other periods or poems. Tracing the progression of his voice and subjects, so useful to stylistic and historically oriented studies of Whitman, is less effective when considering a central theme such as spirituality, a theme that develops organically and deepens as the book grows in size and scope. Hence, the approach here would claim that the confident, sexually vibrant, ecstatic poet of body and soul in 1855 be read alongside the doubtful Drum-Taps poet who struggles to comprehend and console in 1865, and in turn beside the meditative, at times faltering mode of the death poems spanning 1871-1882. Central to this rationale is the fact that Whitman's treatment of spirituality rejects the temporal and that reading his treatment of the theme as one of phases in a poet's development diminishes the complexity, fluidity, and evolving nature of the theme. The levels of exuberance, reflection, anguish, doubt, and certitude in individual poems modulate as Leaves grows, with new poems speaking to preexisting ones, often demanding that readers reexamine their response to an earlier poem or the poet's overall treatment of the theme. Such a methodology agrees with Kuebrich's assertion that "Whitman did arrive at a unified religious vision during the process of writing the first edition of the Leaves, and he continued to elaborate that vision throughout the rest of his life. The individual poems and sections of the Leaves are informed by this new religion and they cannot be considered in isolation" (4).

A further complexity exists in the fact that the appeal of Whitman's personal spirituality cannot easily be separated from the spiritual component of his political vision. At numerous crucial periods of his writing career, his poems strive to cultivate the individual for the sake of growing and strengthening the democracy, and oftentimes his visionary call is at the service of his political aims. Whitman scholars such as Allen Grossman and Betsy Erkkila have noted how "The 'inner light' of religious spiritualism and the 'outer light' of the revolutionary enlightenment - the doctrines of the soul and the doctrines of the republic - became the early and potentially self-contradictory poles of Whitman's thought" (Erkkila and Grossman 16) . Others such as William Pannapacker see the promise of "spiritual democracy" as a result of Whitman's engagement with Emersonian transcendentalism, and accountfor the seeming inclusiveness of Leaves as the poet's success at "camouflag[ing] a political text in the trappings of a sacred scripture" (31 ) . These contradictory poles of private and public, religious and political, result in the unstable, often uncertain nature of Whitman's spiritualism, and it is precisely this fluid instability of vision that lends the theme such resonance and hold in every edition of Leaves. In an uncollected manuscript fragment, Whitman terms spirituality "the unknown" (Leaves 612), and despite various pronouncements of certitude, especially in the 1855 and 1856 editions, as the poet more deeply engages his personal contradictions and his envisioned democracy's various failures and compromises, his poetry comes to challenge its readers to conceive of spirituality more broadly, but less conclusively.

The personal pull of Whitman's early poetry is undeniably powerful, a proclamation of the agency of the individual that at the same time invites us to "follow" the poet toward enlightenment, claiming deep insight into the nature of the soul. The largeness of Whitman's voice and personality within the poems has always evoked a disproportionate attention to his supposed confidence at the expense of a sense of self and purpose that becomes more questioning, more ambiguous, and more engaging as his project grows. While the major works of Whitman's final productive decade demonstrate what Erkkila terms "a more traditional religious faith," by the final arrangement of poems for the 1881 edition, the reader of Leaves will move through poems supremely confident of immortality and a mystical oneness of humanity, other poems where the spiritual core of the text seems more based in phenomenology, Civil War poems that recognize the ability of death's sheer physical carnage to at least momentarily eclipse spiritual hope, and the later meditative mode of poems such as those in the "Whispers of Heavenly Death" cluster. Ultimately, Whitman's collective claims across these editions are less for himself as spiritual guide and more for the power of poetry, language, intellectual search, and imaginative empathy as fluid, dynamic, mysterious, and ultimately unknowable components that anchor the spiritual life.

Among the most compelling spiritual efforts in Whitman's poetry are his paradoxical attempts to obliterate temporal, spatial, and personal confines by focusing intently on the present moment and to forge a communal oneness among all people across time by addressing the reader as a specific "you," a private auditor. Both of these endeavors are at the heart of the major new poem of the 1856 edition of Leaves, "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry" (originally titled "Sun-Down Poem") . Whitman begins the poem with one of his evocations of the eternally possible present, an apostrophe to the immediate: "Flood-tide below me! I see you face to face! / Clouds of the west - sun there half an hour high - I see you also face to face" (CP 1-2) . This exclamatory opening instantly creates a sense of intimacy between speaker and surroundings while also, in its gaze toward the west and awareness of the sun's movement, hinting at the flux of time that will play such a key role later in the poem. In his recent ecocritical study of Whitman, M. Jimmie Killingsworth discusses the poem in the context of four "shorelines" associated with either mourning or renewal, and makes the useful observation of how often in Whitman "tides become associated with the availability of certain spiritual forces and states of mind. The change of the tides provides a needed analog to the ebb and flow of the human soul and its susceptibility to different influences" (130) . It is just this "susceptibility" and vulnerability of the soul that is so unique to Whitman's spiritualism and the ease with which uncertainty is accepted. In some poems, like 1860's "As I Ebb'd with the Ocean of Life," the tide might suggest the beleaguered, empty soul, but in the opening of "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry" it carries a sense of abundance, a rush of fullness. The ecstatic celebration of the quotidian then turns to include the "hundreds and hundreds" of fellow commuters, the poet's keen interest in them described as "curious," an important word that will return later in the poem (4) . Here directed toward the immediate present, the word establishes preference for the process of knowing over possessing the known that is so crucial to the poet's spiritual concept. This curiosity, intense in the moment, is also the catalyst for connecting with the future, leading to the poem's first move to link humanity across generational and temporal boundaries. Whitman boldly declares that those who will also ride the ferry in "years hence" are equally in his meditations, using the familiar "you" to address both his fellow commuters and those who will cross the river far in the future (5) .

In the first edition of “Leaves of Grass”, published just a year before the edition including "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry," Whitman had intimately connected himself with his readers in several poems, most notably "Song of Myself," where he asserted that whosoever touched his book also touched a man. In one of the poem's most memorable moments, he closes the final section by "bequeathing" himself to the ground beneath him, telling his reader that he can be found "under your bootsoles" (section 52; lines 9-10). But these are isolated moments in the grand proclamations of selfhood, sexual vigor, and the role of the poet that dominate "Song of Myself," whereas "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry" is a shorter, sustained meditation aimed at connecting humankind across time and space. In its focus on human connectedness, the poem becomes more reader-focused than does "Song of Myself." The merger with nature in "Song of Myself ' is paradoxical in terms of the poet's relationship with his readers in that while at the end of the poem Whitman posi- tions himself as eternally available to any reader, the largeness of his presence threatens to obliterate the personal invitation. Tenney Nathanson has discussed how Whitman's strong repetition establishes "the poet's apparent power to reproduce himself [. . . which] makes him seem like the magical incarnation of an ideal form, a self-sustaining being immune to interference; unaffected by extrinsic forces or contingent events" (254) . In "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry," however, Whitman's focus on communal unity remains consistently evident and is never subsumed by his huge personality. One of the poem's achievements is the means by which it balances its public element, the celebration of the city, commerce, and democracy in the present and in the envisioned future, alongside the forging of a personal, spiritual bond between generations across time. Whitman uses the tangible, physical present as a means to provoke questions on the ineffable: "What is it then between us?" (5.1). Because the connection transcends the temporal, the physical, and even the confines of the personal, it can be named only as a process of "curious abrupt questionings" (5.6) . Hence, what binds people across time attains power by being unnamable. In returning to the word "curious" in this fifth section, the poem recalls the initial link between present and future evoked in the opening section, and in describing the process of questioning as "abrupt" it casts the activity as spontaneous and ongoing.

By the time the fifth section poses the question "What is it then between us?" the poem has built the connection between present and eternal through reconciling the union of extrinsic entities such as the city's buildings rising from the land, the man-made ferry connecting Manhattan and Brooklyn, and the ceaseless river beneath it. Standing still on the ferry, the poet can observe and record the almost overwhelming array of phenomena surrounding him, the "tall masts" of ships with their "freight," the "granite storehouses" and "foundry chimneys" of the city (3.26-28) . At the same time, he is ever moving with the "hasting current" of "the river of old" (3.8). The "bright flow" of the "flood-tide" and "ebb-tide" seems to move him simultaneously through time and suspend him within it, allowing him to observe the fellow passengers of the present and speak to past and future ferry riders, the "others that are to follow me" (2.6, 14). So by midway through the poem, he may address them in the familiar tone fliat to readers of his day must have seemed shockingly intimate.

The use of the interrogatory is a crucial aspect of Whitman's method of connecting with his readers. By asking what exists between "us," he binds poet-speaker and reader together in an intellectual and spiritual quest for large answers. All would-be answers are both speculative and affirmative: "Whatever it is, it avails not - distance avails not, and place avails not" (5.3). The "it," it turns out, is the shared experience of the common, the immediate, as well as the abstract, the ineffable, orwhatKillingsworth terms "the openness to all things" (129). Crowds, hills, streets, water exist for Whitman as they have for prior riders and as they will exist for riders in the future. At the same time, past and future readers and riders will be struck by "curious abrupt questions," and will "receiv[e] identity by [the] body" (5.6, 10). This key section of the poem, where Whitman most overtly questions the powerful, mysterious connection the poem seeks, contains one of his most abstract images, the "float forever held in solution" from which he, and presumably all fellow beings, are "struck" (5.9) The "float," perhaps suggesting amniotic fluid, evokes an eternal present, a ceaseless possibility of creation binding all humans. Roger Asselineau emphasizes water as possibly the key element running through all of Whitman's poetry: "Though Whitman did not ignore the other elements, he made water triumph over them, because it was both material and fluid. It enabled him to keep his promise to write 'the most spiritual poems' by making 'the poems of materials' [ ----- ] “Leaves of Grass” celebrates the apotheosis of water" (224-25). "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry" surely achieves one of Whitman's most successful unions of the material and the spiritual, with the materiality of the city and the ceaseless flow of the river serving as vehicles for the soul's questioning. The image of the "float" underscores the idea that the water over which the passengers move is indeed their life-source, whether the communal amniotic fluid sustaining all or the flux pushing human life through time and history. Whitman's interest in the possibility of reincarnation also invites reading the suspended position of the "float" as a sort of reservoir of souls awaiting rebirth or reunification. In working to encompass the unknown within his spiritual vision, Whitman creates a key image purposefully indeterminate yet highly suggestive.

By section 8, the poem's penultimate section, Whitman is confident that a catalogue of questions can affirm the connection he is unable to know or name definitively: "We understand then do we not? / What I promis 'd without mentioning it, have you not accepted? / What the study could not teach-what the preaching could not accomplish is accomplish'd, is it not?" (8.7-9). The resistance to resolution, the affirmation through the interrogative, and the engagement with uncertainties sure to remain uncertainties are characteristic strategies in the poet's attempt to connect mystically with all humanity and, by extension, his readers across the formidable barriers of space and time. A parochial vision is less fluid and dynamic than a shared one, and in seeking what an earlier section of the poem calls the "impalpable," Whitman calls on the self to become "disintegrated" in order to become "part of the scheme" (2.2). By the end of the poem, when he implores, 'You necessary film, continue to envelop the soul," he has returned to the material, the here and now, as his mystical transport to "eternity" (9.21). What is most sustaining and binding is that which cannot be fully understood ("We fathom you not"), yet can be felt, absorbed, intuited, questioned (9.30) .

"Crossing Brooklyn Ferry," alternating between public exhortation and private introspection, is one of Whitman's great affirmative, prophetic proclamations of humanity's connection with the city, its future destiny, and with one another. In a nearly contemporary poem, published just one year earlier as one of the un ti tied thirteen in the original 1855 edition of Leaves, and in 1871 given its final title of "The Sleepers," Whitman undertakes a more unsettling psychological exploration of spiritual estrangement and unification. In its dreamlike movement of passages focusing on suffering, eroticism, loss, and, in the end, universal unity, the poem is one of Whitman's key texts where the spiritual search moves through registers of pain and uncertainty, arriving at a place of restoration whose source or location is never named. The poem demonstrates the contradictory elements of human engagement, examining sorrows, pleasures, and mysteries in a dynamic vision of process rather than resolution, fluidity rather than assurance.

As opposed to the bright sun that gilds the daytime commuters in "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry," "The Sleepers" begins in the realm of night and dream. A "wandering and confused" speaker, "lost to myself, ill-assorted, contradictory," undertakes a troubled and at times almost surreal journey that begins by floating over an array of sleepers, including many who would be marginalized in mainstream society-criminals, murderers, exiles, drunkards, onanists, the insane, "a gay gang of blackguards" (1. 4, 41). The poem begins, "I wander all night in my vision," then proceeds to recount episodes of violence (both imagined and actual, both natural and man-made), loss, loneliness, and general ennui as primal aspects of life, and ends in the final two sections with a unifying vision (1.1) . A central issue in the poem is how one reads the relationship between the speaker and the array of other people in the poem. In "The Sleepers" Whitman reads history, both personal and public history, and attempts to account for or compensate for past losses and sufferings via a mysterious and unexpected unification of past and present, the dead and the living, the sleeping and the waking, in the end of the poem. Harold Aspiz has observed that the poet-speaker "resembles a clairvoyant" who merges with other dreamers, "heals them, and makes them aware of their potential greatness and their eligibility for immortality" (So Long 88). George Hutchinson compares the opening of the poem to "a shamanic séance," with the speaker "at the threshold of descent" and inviting the reader to accompany him (60).

But the language and movement of the poem also emphasize thatif the speaker is on ajourney, his destination is quite unknown. In the context of Whitman's spiritual vision, the speaker seems engaged in the process of seeking and discovering, unsure of his motive, destination, and even direction. His encounters with the literal past as well as the world of dreamscapes are by chance, rather than plan. When he meets the frightening scenes of violence and death, however, he must account for them and "tally" these events in his effort at unification in the poem's final sections. The initial feeling of "The Sleepers" is a sense of estrangement and wonder, not the confident, swelling opening of "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry." While the speaker desires physical contact with the sleeping, his hands can only pass "soothingly to and fro a few inches from them" in the dream world, even as he attempts to imaginatively join each of them (1.24). Entering deeper into the unconscious world of the dream, and as if in response to the intense need for contact, he first inhabits the body of a woman whose "truant lover" is in turn replaced by the darkness. As the darkness merges with and becomes the lover, accompanying him "up the shadowy shore," the poem is liberated to explore the erotic as its initial site of spiritual insight (1.47, 56).

The poem's most highly-charged erotic passage appeared in the original 1855 version of the poem, falling just after the episode involving the woman, her truant lover, the darkness, and the poet-speaker. Excised by Whitman from all subsequent printings after 1855, probably due to its explicitness, the passage is central to the poem's urge to encompass a broad realm of primal experience. Standing naked and exposed, the speaker must admit to and confront his erotic urges, including the auto-erotic, the movement from childhood to manhood. Filled with "hun- ger" yet "ashamed to go naked about the world," the passage's speaker engages in a primal struggle with the need to satisfy erotic desire (line 65, untitìed and unsectioned 1855 version of the poem) . Again describing his feelings as "curious," the speaker ultimately gives himself over to Dionysian revelry and orgasmic release. This is a characteristic moment in Whitman, akin to section 5 of "Song of Myself," where physical release leads to a moment of spiritual tranquility and reflection. Aspiz, in reading the final third of "The Sleepers," discusses Whitman's marriage of the flesh and the soul, the "ongoing process of physical and spiritual perfectibility" pervading the 1855 and 1856 editions of Leaves. While Whitman is not always consistent in explaining how "physical development nurtures spiritual development," he clearly believed that a healthy body was beneficial to spiritual well being (So Long 94-95). It seems equally clear that, particularly in the editions of Leaves preceding the Civil War (1855; 1856; 1860), sexual expression and fulfillment were part of the recipe for health. The excised erotic passage in "The Sleepers" finds Whitman exploring his ecstatic connection to other human beings, in this case the array of sleepers, and confessing that the attraction includes a strong erotic element, a desire to ravish and to be ravished. His relationship to the sequence of characters soon to be presented in the poem will become increasingly spiritual as the poem progresses, but he is unable and unwilling to divorce physicality from that union, and indeed without the confession of carnal urges, the spiritual connection is impossible . Reynolds points out that in mid-nineteenth-century American culture there "were various religious and philosophical currents that brought together the earthly and the divine in sometimes stardingways" and that Whitman's intense interest in these movements such as spiritualism, Swedenborgianism, and Harmonialism "help[s] explain the sometimes bizarre yoking of the erotic and mystical in his poems" (236) .

Following this passage, the poem returns to the poet-speaker's descent, finding him inhabiting the body and psyche of several characters, including a corpse. But as Whitman becomes a shroud and enters the coffin, he describes the state of death as "blank," suggesting the unknown element of death evoked in many of his other poems. Lacking "evil" and "pain" (2.8), the death state remains to be explored and inscribed. Death is never feared in Whitman but acknowledged as a powerful, unknown mystery, one that highlights the need to see life as "enough." Perhaps prompted by his momentary glimpse of the "blank" state of death, Whitman proceeds to his sequence of episodes of death, loss, and violence that in turn leads to his grand unification of all in the poem's final sections. The first episode of loss involves a "beautiful gigantic swimmer" battling a violent ocean that batters him despite his heroic efforts to navigate the waves and currents. The poem describes the sea as "red-trickled" and "spotted with his blood" before it carries away "the brave corpse" (3.1, 5, 9, 11). Immediately following this scene the poet's gaze turns to a violent shipwreck. He joins a crowd rushing to help those on board, but all are killed, and the poet can only "help pick up the dead and lay them in rows in a barn" (4.9).

Four more episodes follow, the first being a scene from early American history, with George Washington suffering his bloodiest defeat of the Revolutionary War in the battle at Brooklyn. Whitman describes a startled and pained Washington looking on "blanch'd" as he watches the deaths of young men "confided to him by their parents" (5.5) . Then Washington is shown at the end of the war bidding farewell to his officers and army. What all these scenes share is a sense of helplessness amidst would-be heroism. In the Washington episodes, in accounting the costs of the formation of the country, Whitman anticipates the perspective of the Drum-Taps sequence.

In the third of the four scenes, Whitman offers an autobiographical moment as he recounts a visit to his parents' home by a "red squaw" (6.3) who delighted his mother with her presence for a full afternoon. The focus of the passage is on his mother's warm reception and then grieving response when the squaw leaves and never returns. After inviting the traveler into the home and cooking for her, Whitman's mother never saw the visitor again, although she hoped for her return for years thereafter. Emphasizing communal bonding across cultures and color, the passage presents the ability of humans to connect without shared spoken language through acts of kindness and generosity.

Then, as if to highlight the danger of ignoring and failing to honor racial and cultural difference, the final specific episode before the poem's turn toward affirmation and unification, and the second passage Whitman chose to excise from all subsequent published versions of "The Sleepers," presents a slave whose wife has been sold down the river. Whitman speaks in the voice of the slave who terms himself the "sorrowful terrible heir" of Lucifer, full of hate for "him that oppresses me" (line 127, 1855 un ti tied and unsectioned version) . Just as brief and just as powerful as the preceding excised passage, these eight lines contest man's propensity for cruelty to his fellow man and invoke human dignity and pride in the potent voice of resistance to racial oppression. Whitman's attitude toward slavery in his varied writings is a complex and at times contradictory one, but this key passage both highlights the poet's overall attitude toward equality and social justice for all humans and serves as the turning point in "The Sleepers," for in the two long sections that follow this episode and close the poem Whitman brings together all the suffering and violated figures from earlier in the poem, and unites them in a vision of transcendent unity.

As abruptly as the poem began, with the speaker plunging into a dark vision and journey, the poem now turns toward "a show of the summer softness [. . .] an amour of the light and air" (7.1). The language of this section's opening makes it unclear whether or not the emergence into summer and love is a dream, but as the entire poem is akin to a dream-vision or some form of deep self-analysis, the question of reality versus vision is largely inconsequential. What is significant is that all of the individual figures from the preceding episodic sections-the swimmer, the squaw, the onanist, and numerous others suffering or oppressed - now are brought together in a grand consort of humanity. The language emphasizes and repeats that all these figures are returning home or voyaging home, made equal in the end: "I swear they are averaged now-one is no better than the other, / The night and sleep have liken 'd them and restored them" (7.26-27) . As in "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry," boundaries of time and space seem irrelevant. The universe is brought into a profound "order," and the soul now seems to take precedence over the body Within the context of his study of Whitman 's poetry concerning death, Aspiz addresses the end of "The Sleepers":

[I]f the poem's sleepers have become "invigorated" by the dream they shared with the persona, the dream itself may have enabled them to confront their own lives-and their deaths-with greater courage and nobler aspirations. Likewise "The Sleepers" -the-poem-itself-may continue to inspire readers with a stronger sense of their own physical and spiritual journey. (So Long 96)

Without suggesting that this is the realm of death or of heaven, Whitman twice mentions "the myth of heaven" as the force that brings the power of the soul into play, an element that restores order and a sense of place to the diseased and disenfranchised (7.32-33) . Significantly, Whitman emphasizes that unity, order, the "myth" of heaven, and the "averaging" of these dramatis personae does not dilute the powerful diversity of humankind. The catalogue of people "shall be no less diverse, but they shall flow and unite" (7.44).

But why does Whitman use the term "the myth of heaven"? One possibility is that Whitman wishes to position "heaven" as a human construct, a possibility and a mystery, a guiding principle that can help shape a worldview and ethical human behavior. Whitman's poetry rarely mentions heaven as a goal for the ever-lasting soul, choosing instead to suggest that the peaceful and eternal realm of heaven can be sought and achieved in earthly life. This belief also reiterates Whitman's vision of the spiritual life as an organic, ongoing process of exploration rather than a journey toward a defined goal, such as the conventional Protestant belief in a heavenly afterlife. In summarizing Whitman's religious upbringing, Reynolds notes "the amazing variety of his youthful religious experiences" leading to a poetry that "would be ecumenical, naming and embracing many different religions without lending absolute credence to any single one" (36). Perhaps the "averaging" of the broad spectrum of characters who achieve a sort of ethical redemption at the end of "The Sleepers" is paralleled in Whitman's interest in deism, and the idea of the relative parity of all religious faiths. Whitman was familiar with a number of well-known deists of his day, and revered many early American political figures who were also deists (Reynolds 36) . Whitman's family was also interested in Quakerism, and Whitman was fond of Elias Hicks, the rhetorically powerful and controversial Quaker figure. As a boy, Whitman was taken to hear Hicks speak in 1829, and Reynolds traces aspects of Hicks's oratorical style in Whitman's verse and general emphasis on voice: "Hicks's extreme emphasis on the sanctity of the inner light resonated within the poet who would place total reliance on the voice of the self (38). The "inner light" that Whitman locates within his own soul and by extension within every human soul is the idea or "myth" that brings about the unification of the wandering and divergent souls in "The Sleepers" and in other poems. Aspiz notes that the poet's concept of eternity owes something to Emerson 's essay tided "Immortality," with its emphasis on human capability in the manifest world, "immortality as an extension of the life of the mind and the power of the imagination" (So Long'28). The privileging of the religious imagination or soul, which Emerson termed "Reason," is manifest in Whitman's awareness of emerging studies of world religions. This context helped him conceive his notion of the evolution of religions and his idea that it was time for a new religion to evolve for his contemporary democracy. In his "Preface" to the 1855 edition of “Leaves of Grass”, he contended that this task would fall to American poets.

These strains of influence remain visible through the various editions of Leaves, without Whitman ever choosing one over the other. Instead, they are synthesized into what might best be considered an ongoing process, fluid enough to allow individual poems to be read in evolving contexts based on their placement within Leaves. For example, "The Sleepers," originally one of the thirteen untitled poems published in 1855, was ultimately placed in a cluster of six poems following the Civil War poems and just preceding the "Whispers of Heavenly Death" cluster, largely composed in the early 1870s. As a meditation on suffering and loss, one ending with a transcendent vision, the placement of "The Sleepers" between poems of battlefield carnage and the late, shorter poems confronting the actuality of death allows the 1855 poem to deepen the reader's overall sense of an evolving response to death, an unsettled attitude able to accommodate loss and hope. Along with other key poems in this cluster of six, such as "Passage to India" and "To Think of Time" (like "The Sleepers" one of the original thirteen) , it works toward recuperation and hope more potently by following the Drum-Taps sequence.

Whitman's notion of death as an unknown yet unthreatening continuation of life is forcefully present in many of his major poems from 1855-1860, often proposing a reincarnation of the spirit that retains or recovers a physical presence by being available to successive generations. But after the carnage of the Civil War battlefields Whitman witnessed first-hand as a nurse in the tents and hospitals during the early to mid 1860s, his poetry of Drum-Taps and his great Lincoln elegy "When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd" turn away from the idea of death as part of a grand cycle and instead explore the process of mourning left to the living, what "Lilacs" terms the necessity of reconciling "the thought of death" with "the knowledge of death" (14; 13-14). Then, in his late work written in ill health, particularly in the "Whispers of Heavenly Death" cluster and in the major poem "Passage to India," Whitman moves into a more speculative mode where he contemplates death as a mysterious "unknown region" and seeks "analogies" for life and death. Whitman's attitude toward death is complex and evolving, hinted at or forcefully articulated in dozens of poems from the nine editions of “Leaves of Grass” that span over thirty-five years of his life. Significant scholarly work on Whitman and death can be found in V.K. Chari, Tenney Nathanson, and Harold Aspiz, with Aspiz's So Long!: Walt Whitman's Poetry of Death being the most comprehensive treatment to date. Clearly, Whitman's treatment of death in his poetry is vital to any investigation of the spiritual dimension of his work and, as Aspiz notes, "is basic to the understanding of “Leaves of Grass”" ("Death" 168).

The poem that would come to bear the title "Song of Myself," the major poem of the original 1855 edition, contains several key passages relating to death, including sections 5 and 6, which offer another example of a scene where ecstatic sexual engagement leads to and is linked with a visionary spiritual transcendence of death. Section 5 begins with an invitation to the soul to "loafe with me on the grass" and quickly moves into a highly charged erotic exchange between soul and body, climaxing in a release that brings spiritual peace and awareness (5.3) . Echoing Ecclesiastes, the speaker proclaims, "Swiftly arose and spread around me the peace and knowledge that pass all the argument of the earth, / And I know that the hand of God is the promise of my own, / And I know that the spirit of God is the brother of my own" (5.10-12). In "Song of Myself," divinity clearly is inherent in the gift of human love and bodily contact. In section 22, the speaker engages in "amorous" (22.6) contact with the sea; section 24 declares "I believe in the flesh and the appetites" (24.26); section 28 presents an auto-erotic frenzy with the sensation of touch "quivering me to a new identity" (28.1).

The sacredness of the physical so palpable in the early editions of “Leaves of Grass” remains a core element in all subsequent editions. John Irwin, in characterizing “Leaves of Grass” as a "hieroglyphic Bible," asserts that Whitman's is not a religion of the triune God but rather a religion of the human body and the body of nature conjoined in a cosmic unity. In Whitman's poetry, the physical is the pathway to the metaphysical precisely because in his poetic vision the physical is transformed into the metaphysical-man's body becomes his soul. (870)

This is certainly prevalent in poems of the first two editions, 1855 and 1856, with death seen as "no stoppage" (section 45), some form of the continuation of life, but also in later poems where physical loss must be met with the physicality of language and the mourning process, a bodily effort to lift the sagging spirit.

The powerful, sustained contemplation on the relation of life to death in section 6 is prompted by a question on the materiality of this earth: "A child said What is the grass? fetching it to me with full hands. / How could I answer the child? I do not know what it is any more than he" (6.1-2). The poet muses on the nature and source of the grass, his great metaphor for human existence and community, and is led, among other possibilities, to speculate that "now it seems to me the beautiful uncut hair of graves" (6.12). The grass thereby serves to connect the living with the dead, obliterating time boundaries much like the flowing river in "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry," and allowing an emotional connection between "young men," "old people," and "offspring taken soon out of their mothers' laps," all now dead but simultaneously "alive and well somewhere" (6.14-16). Still seeking his answer to the child's simple question, in contemplating the realm of death Whitman returns to his most frequently employed emblem of the life-force, the voice, as he hears the "uttering tongues" of the dead. But he can only wish to be able to "translate" what they are saying. Although unable to grasp their location or the nature of their expression, the "hints" of the dead persuade him to conclude that "there is really no death" but rather a new stage of life's cycle where "nothing collapses" (6.28-31). In the end, death remains an unknown, "different from what any one supposed" and perhaps a privileged state (6.32). Chari connects Whitman's notion of life and death bound in a cyclical continuum to his interest in eastern thought and belief systems, while others have seen his emphasis on the eternal consolation of nature as a form of pantheism (17-20). Both views are consistently manifest in Whitman's treatment of death in the 1855 and 1856 editions of Leaves. In section 6 of "Song of Myself," he concludes that death is "different" and "luckier" than any might suppose (6.32), an unknown he insists is some sort of threshold to a new birth.

At the same time, in other lesser noticed sections of "Song of Myself," Whitman presents scenes of death that are accompanied by little if any consolation, such as the "murder in cold blood" of the army of 371 Texas rangers by the Mexican army in 1836 (section 34) and the story of an "old-time sea-fight" (sections 35 and 36). These passages anticipate the starkness of Drum-Taps, with the dying bravely confronting death, but with the poet's focus more on recounting the event, the actual representation of the physical end, than on identifying the fate of the soul. But "Song of Myself" mirrors Whitman's poetry as a whole by engaging in a dialectic with the theme of death, what Aspiz terms "the tense interplay between his fears of perishing and his convictions of eternal life" that lend his poems "dramatic excitement" ("Death" 166). By section 43, the poem has left behind scenes of specific physical death and offers a synthesis of all religions ancient and modern in its vision of reincarnation: "My faith is the greatest of faiths and the least of faiths, / Enclosing worship ancient and modern and all between ancient and modern, / Believing I shall come again upon the earth after five thousand years" (43.2-4). The subsequent lines continue to embrace sacred figures, texts, and sites of various world religions, all available to the seeking spirit, "the winders of the circuit of circuits" (43.15). This section propels Whitman back into his motif of "perpetual journey" as the poem moves toward its memorable conclusion. Within these journeys, in particular the psychological explorations of self, the relation of self to others, as well as to the external, natural world, the insights gained by the poet are never closed or definitive but instead part of ongoing spiritual growth, with Whitman emerging as better equipped to lead the readers into their own emotional and intellectual quests. This is perhaps part of what Hutchinson means, in his comparison of "The Sleepers" and "Song of Myself," by "an assumption of prophetic power." "Both [poems] represent experiences of religious inspiration of a very similar, sensual sort, precipitated by existential riddles that lead to trance-like absorption, symbolic death, spiritual "vision," achievement of equilibrium, and an assumption of prophetic power" (58).

In the closing sections of "Song of Myself," Whitman returns to the trope of death as a new birth, part of a scheme, with section 49 presenting death as "the accoucheur" or midwife, and in section 50, "form, union, plan-it is eternal life-it is Happiness" (50.10). In the final section of the poem, Whitman is able to "bequeath" himself to the earth and air and to his future readers. He ends the poem not by conquering death but by continuing to engage it as possibility, alternately feared and welcomed, but part of a process and not a final event. By handing his "book" to the reader he transfers his spiritual guidance to that reader, placing the responsibility for further discovery and enlightenment into the hands of his "eleves," urging them to "continue your annotations, continue your questionings" (38.17). The task of the reader is no longer to listen to the poet, but to "destroy the teacher" and begin to "accrue" one's own visions and insights, as the poet has throughout his long poem (47.3) .

In many of the new poems of the 1860 edition, such as "Starting from Paumanok," Whitman continues to challenge readers to conceive of spirituality in abroad, open sense, connecting the spiritual with the physical, the possibility of afterlife with earthly life: "I will make the poems of materials, for I think they are to be the most spiritual poems, / And I will make the poems of my body and of mortality, / For I think I shall then supply myself with the poems of my soul and of Immortality" (6.3-5) . By this third edition, he is still eager to explore death as offering clues to life and thought while balancing his optimistic explorations with moments of self-doubt, as in "As I Ebb'd with the Ocean of Life." The 1860 edition is an important one, with major poems such as "Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking" (earlier titled "A Child's Reminiscence," and "A Word Out of the Sea"), "As I Ebb'd with the Ocean of Life," "Starting from Paumanok," and the frank love sequences "Children of Adam" and "Calamus," the latter now recognized as a watershed gay text.

Whitman had already announced in "Song of Myself that he is the poet of the body and the soul, insisting that the two must not be separated, and "Paumanok" reiterates this major theme. John F. Gardner's analysis is pertinent to Whitman's enduring coupling of the spiritual with the physical: "Perhaps we may say that Whitman was Eastern in his recognition that all of material existence derives from high spiritual beginnings, but he was Western in emphasizing that the opposite is also true: that spirituality continues to evolve in, through, and by means of the physical-earthly" (123). Later in "Song of Myself," in assessing his own body, Whitman declares, "divine am I inside and out" (24.28). But the lines from "Paumanok" on the poems of materials also being the poems of the soul do something that "Song of Myself" does not. They position language and the poem itself as the meeting place for the physical and spiritual, the reconciliation site for life and death.

The key poems from 1855, with their focus on the poet and his feelings toward his fellow beings, never quite pause to dwell on language and the poem as sacred object, even though they foreground voice and expressiveness. By 1860, in poems like "Paumanok" and "Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking," the poet's attention is more often fixed on the word, the poem, the catalytic moment of understanding or keen loneliness than on the transcendent experience of connectedness with others. Whether through moments of insight or despair, he is invariably brought back to the soul. Described earlier in the poem as his "mistress," at the end of "Starting from Paumanok" the soul is his "camerado," "the loud echo of my songs" (18.13) . As for his readers, Whitman instructs them to examine both themselves and nature for "spiritual joys," having made clear that these are also the materials for the poem. Eventually Whitman would come to place "Paumanok" just ahead of "Song of Myself ' in his final arrangement of “Leaves of Grass”, a pair of extended examinations of the source and sustenance of spiritual life, a guided searching of the soul.

The key poem among the 1860 additions is "Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking," where Whitman brings together the themes of passage from childhood to adulthood, the discovery of Eros and Thanatos, and being called to the role of poet. Beginning with sheer propulsion of language, the poem's first twenty-two lines give us a whirlwind autobiography of the speaker's sensibility. He is a man recalling through his tears a boyhood and how he came to be a "chanter of pains and joys, uniter of here and hereafter" (20) . The poem then proceeds into a dramatic narrative of a rite of passage, including a conversation between boy and mourning bird, an observation of loss that leads to an awareness of death and subsequently to nothing less than a discovery of identity and purpose. The poem contains several of the characteristic routes by which Whitman treats spirituality: psychological exploration of the uncertain; nature in conversation with both human intellect and human emotion; the positioning of poetry as source of both inspiration and solace.

The boy in the poem, the young poet-to-be, performs primarily as observer and auditor until his entry into adulthood and poetry in the final section. The experience of loss takes place as a form of psychological transference, the boy spying on two birds, "feather 'd guests from Alabama" nesting along the shore of his Long Island home (26). When the female bird disappears the boy listens to her mate's song of mourning, sensing a kinship and terming the bird "brother" (61) , increasingly feeling called to "absorb" and then "translate" his notes (69). Of all Whitman's poems, "Cradle" more than any other fore- grounds the poet's belief in the essential process of being open to engaging the natural world as a route to spiritual awareness, discovery of language, and sense of self. Killingsworth reads this message as central in "Lilacs," noting "the willingness and capacity of the sensitive person to be transformed in the face of undeniable otherness, both human and natural" (119). But the openness to transformation is more profound in "Cradle" dian "Lilacs" because of the great emotional risk to the young boy in this process. The poem emphasizes the boy's vulnerability in his own solitude, every bit as intense and felt as that of the sorrowful bird. He is acutely aware of the sharp emotions at hand, both his and the bird's, but he chooses to remain on the shore as a witness to these dual dramas, the bird's keening and his own psychological, emotional, and spiritual growth. As with so many of Whitman's speakers, the boy seems poised on a threshold, figured by the uneven boundary of land and sea, and at points in the poem seems threatened by a powerful ocean that might literally subsume him. His relationship with the sea, which the boy-poet describes as "the fierce old mother" and "some old crone rocking the cradle," is overdy Oedipal (133, 182). The sea is simultaneously and variously lover, mother, teacher, "hissing" threat, and deliveress. While the sea serves as catalyst for knowledge and maturation, once the boy realizes his calling as poet, singer of loss and sorrow, he must strike out and move beyond sheer emotional response to become the voice of healing and solace.

A significant section of the poem is constituted by the solitary and bereaved bird's emotional song of loss, which the metamorphosing boy "translates." Whitman demarcates the two voices, that of the bird's voice and the boy's reflections and responses, in differing typeface. But die act of "absorbing" involves receiving-voice from nature, from both bird and sea, so that birdsong ultimately becomes the poet's voice. The bird enacts the loss of mate and sings a dirge that transforms into a poetic exertion and affirmation of vocal self; die boy identifies and formulates his translation, entering an "ecstatic" state as he awaits the "word final, superior to all" from the sea (161). The "low and delicious word" from the sea is "death," repeated five times. But the bird has prepared the boy in not only sheer expression of panged loss but, more significantly, the art of vocal modulation in singing of loss. In its very singing, the bird has described its own voice and function of song, whether "loud, " "murmur, " or "throbbing, " whether to "sooth, "to "sink low, "or to sound "sick and sorrowful, " and whether to sing of past joys, present sorrow, or fluctuate between both simultaneously. The voice lesson of the bird is of equal importance to the sea's deliverance of the word "death," an aspect of the poem yet to be afforded a thorough critical treatment. The "fitful risings and fallings" and "beginning notes of yearning" will prove vital to Whitman's elegiac songs published five years later, the poetic responses to the Civil War dead and the assassinated president (9, 11). The subtle modulations of grief and spiritual seeking will also play prominently in his 1872 self-elegies clustered under the title "Whispers of Heavenly Death" as he anticipates his own bodily decline.

Of interest to any argument for Whitman's advocacy of spiritual awareness as an ongoing process that embraces the unknown is Harold Aspiz's discussion of the poem in his So Long!: Walt Whitman's Poetry of Death. Examining primarily the 1859-1860 version that Whitman continued to revise until the 1881 Leaves, Aspiz demonstrates how key lines surrounding the sea's pronouncement of "death" "clearly articulating the persona's inability to construe the sea's 'message'" were later deleted by Whitman. The lines ask the question "O what is my destination?" and fear that it may be "chaos," leaving the ending of the poem more open and ambiguous, as "the sea's answer remains shrouded in vagueness, since it can be understood as either terrifying or comforting" (1 36-38) . But Whitman's revisions also serve to foreground the entry into language, which does not so much provide closure to the final 1881 version as shift the location of ambiguity from youthful openness to the poetic process and the creative response to loss. MarkBauerlein usefully notes that one way of reading the end of the poem emphasizes the poet's need "to transform formative experiences and dim memories into songs that transcend their own experiences" (496) . In embracing language as his vehicle for continuing the search for connection and discovery, Whitman does not close off the possibility of confronting the terror of death. He does affirm, however, the responsibility for finding a register of both response and regeneration when that confrontation occurs.

"Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking" affirms Whitman's recognition that the mature poet is necessarily an elegiac poet, and as part of this recognition, his decision to quickly include Drum-Taps, originally published separately in 1865, in the new 1867 edition ?? “Leaves of Grass” as an appendix, and then to incorporate the sequence into the 1871 Leaves, signifies his belief that the poet's response to suffering and death is a vital part of his spiritual vision. The Civil War and Lincoln's assassination gave Whitman the material for elegiac verse, and by placing Drum-Tapsand "When Lilacs Last in the DooryardBloom'd" into Leaves, Whitman attempts to move past the liminal state in the transformation of poetic self-narrated by "Cradle" and assumes the mantle of chanter of loss. The essential sequence of Drum Taps poems is based primarily upon Whitman's unofficial service as a nurse in field and city hospitals in and around Washington B.C. during the years 1863-64. Whitman had previously visited sick and wounded war soldiers in a New York City hospital in 1861-62 but went to the war front in Virginia in December 1862 after learning that his brother George had been wounded. His brother's wound was not serious, but Whitman settled in Washington for the next year and a half. M. Wynn Thomas comments on how going to the front enabled Whitman to recognize the profound gap of awareness about the war between soldiers and civilians, so that "his war poems became, in turn, his letters to the world" as he set about attempting to connect his readers with the experiences of those in the camps and fields (31).

In Whitman's final arrangement, Drum-Taps begins as a call to arms, a celebration of democracy as cause for the war. Democracy is personified as a brave soldier moving forward: "Thunder on! stride on, Democracy! strike with vengeful stroke!" ("Rise O Days from Your Fathomless Deeps" 3.1). But the cluster of poems becomes more interesting and powerful when Whitman begins to focus on the daily activities of the soldiers. Three sequential poems where Whitman writes as observer, creating scene and atmosphere with intricate, almost painterly detail, begin to trace possible spiritual components to be extracted from the carnage of war. "Cavalry Crossing a Ford," "Bivouac on a Mountain Side," and "An Army Corps on the March" all subtly highlight the grace of human endurance by establishing a strong connection between the soldiers and their surroundings and an unspoken fraternal unity with one another. In "Cavalry Crossing a Ford" Whitman contemplates the "serpentine course" of the soldiers, taking note of how individuals comprise the group: "Behold the brown-faced men, each group, each person a picture" (4) . In his insightful, book-length contextualization and analysis of Whitman's service during the Civil War, Roy Morris Jr. remarks on how in this brief poem Whitman shifts perspective from "long shot" to "close-up view," emphasizing "both the democratic nature of the army and the way it has molded into a monolithic whole" (67) . Consolation is not the primary spiritual element in Drum-Taps. Rather, the poems suggest that witnessing the daily reality of war, reflecting on its meaning, and drawing one's own conclusions is the means by which the war can deepen the soul of the non-combative citizen.

"Bivouac on a Mountain Side" and "An Army Corps on the March" similarly adopt the perspective of keen onlooker and historical witness, and Whitman also continues to develop the relationship between the soldiers and the very earth they fight over. "Cavalry" shows the men crossing a "silvery river" and ends with the images of their "guidon flags" in the wind (3, 7), while "Bivouac" focuses on the backdrop of mountains and cedars where the army has camped for the night. The poem ends with an exclamation over the outbreak of "eternal stars" in the sky, an image that throws the mortal lives of the soldiers into sharp relief while emphasizing that not even the unnatural ravages of war can destroy the earth's cycle (7). "An Army Corps on the March" turns to the heat of day, with "dust cover'd" soldiers "toiling under the sun" (4), but even here Whitman seems interested in how the soldiers integrate into the landscape, suggesting his vision of oneness for all the states and for the warring armies, Union and Confederate alike. The poet's keen response to these scenes is another key instance of how Whitman binds deep empathy, reflective response, and language as components of his spiritual vision. By the time the Drum-Taps sequence reaches the central poem "The Wound Dresser," Whitman's role has shifted dramatically from recorder to participant. Now he is the old man-nurse, "thread [ing] my way through the hospitals," dressing wounds, comforting, or in the worst cases, asking death to "In mercy come quickly" (4.2, 3.6) . As Gardner has noted, when Whitman presents himself as healer, his mood is "avowedly religious" (25). His focus is on providing support and spiritual comfort by whatever means possible. In "Come Up from the Fields Father" Whitman focuses on the mother's response to the letter bearing news of her son's war injury, her anguished grieving and desire to join her son in death. But just as Whitman has the reader attending to the mother's response, we are more attuned to his response to the mother, the scene, and death as subject. Similarly, in "Vigil Strange I Kept on the Field One Night" the reader feels deeply for the wounded "brave boy" whose eyes arrest Whitman before the poet has to move on amidst a battle (16) . Returning to find the boy at the end of day, the poet discovers him dead on the field and keeps an all night vigil of silence before carefully wrapping and burying the body. Again it is the remarkable response of the poet to death, in both language and action, that compels and involves the reader.

At the same time Whitman succeeds in connecting civilian readers with the reality of war, Drum-Taps never fully transcends the liminal state of questioning the meaning of suffering and loss. Again and again the poems present a speaker who pauses "in silence" to open himself to possible enlightenment on the entire process of life and death. A few lines from different poems in the sequence will demonstrate the recurrence of this posture: "O tender and wondrous thoughts, / Of life and death"; "Vigil of silence, love and death"; "Curious I halt and silent stand"; "Long, long I muse, then on my way go wandering"; "Thus in silence in dreams' projections" ("By the Bivouac's Fitful Flame" 7-8; "Vigil Strange I Kept of the Field One Night" 14; "A Sight in Camp in the Daybreak Gray and Dim" 7; "As Toilsome I Wander'd Virginia's Woods" 8, "The Wound-Dresser" 4.1). On the whole, what Drum-Taps presents is a sensibility learning to process and respond to loss while remaining open to ongoing uncertainties about that process. As he emphatically asserts in "To a Certain Civilian," any reader eager for facile representations of war or pat closure in his songs "will never understand me" (10) . He closes the sequence by focusing on the nature of representation, poetic response itself, and by reiterating that his response to the war is far from finished: "The Northern ice and rain that began me nourish me to the end, / But the hot sun of the South is to fully ripen my songs" (13-14). For Whitman, there are no limits to the possible future relationship between his nation and his poetry. Drum-Taps is anything but a closed text, or a "lesson" of war. It is a poetic sequence best read alongside other key Whitman texts dealing with public and personal loss and possible regeneration. The spiritual dimension of these poems is consistent with other moments in Whitman where the reader is invited to adopt the stance of the poet - seeking, questioning, and continuing.

Whitman's increased interest in the process of representing loss is the focus of his major work in elegy, "When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd." Aspiz offers a useful summation of Whitman's attitude in the poem: "No other poetic commemoration of the war so exaltedly embraces the mystery of death, both in terms of national tragedy and as a record of one man's progression through despair, mourning, and a resolution of his own and his nation's anguish" (So Long 189). While the poem pays homage to the assassinated Lincoln and contains many of the conventional emblems and elements of elegy, within the context of Whitman's treatment of death and its aftermath, the poem's principal focus is on the process of mourning and the impact of death on those left behind, particularly the poet who would respond to the death of a national figure. We see this in the sections detailing the slow, steadyjourney of Lincoln's coffin across the states, the outpouring of response from "the mournful voices" of the populous, and the personal response of the poet (6.9). From the outset of the poem, Whitman clearly sees his purpose as one of mourning more thatjust the deceased Lincoln. In the poem's opening section, he establishes that his major emblems of mourning - the lilac, the star, and the bird - are all recurring entities of nature, not finite emblems of loss alone. The cyclical appearance of the spring lilacs and the evening star are not just reminders of the dead, but figures of renewal and hope. Similarly, the song of the bird, increasingly twined with the song of the poet, as in "Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking," is "death's outlet song of life" (4.7), the work of mourning necessary for any possible consolation and rejuvenation.

In sections 8 and 9, Whitman positions himself as a student of nature, absorbing instructions from the star and bird. The child poet-to-be of "Out of the Cradle" is now more certain of his voice and role, but he continues to seek guidance from the natural world. Lincoln, never mentioned by name in the poem, has now ceased to be the poem's object of focus, if he ever was. After the poet bestows his "sprig of lilac" on the coffin at the end of section 6, the central concern becomes the acts of mourning and recuperation, the nature of the song of loss and the "tally" of both the individual soul of the poet and the collective soul of the nation. After communing with the star and bird, the poet-speaker shifts attention to his own search for terms of expression: "O how shall I warble myself for the dead one there I love?" (10.1). Whereas at the end of Out of the Cradle" the young boy stands poised to begin poetic utterance, in "Lilacs," after the series of questions on how to acknowledge loss, "the breath of my chant" explodes into a catalogue of affirmation, a sweeping panorama of "body and soul - this land" (10.6, 12.1). Hence, by mid-way through the poem, the poet's voice has found emotional balance and rhetorical power and command. Only after appropriately honoring the dead and affirming the power of song to stabilize both poet-speaker and reader, does the deeper probing of death in relation to life take place.

At the core of the poem comes the visit of the poet-speaker and his "comrades," the thought of death and knowledge of death, to the bird in the swamp. The result of the visit is a paean to death, a song of "praise! praise! praise!" intimate and reverential in tone. "Come lovely and soothing death," the prayer begins, and proceeds to celebrate death as the great equalizer and unifier, a " [d] ark mother" and "strong deliveress" who, like the star, lilac, and bird in their recurring appearances, will affirm life rather than interrupt or terminate it (14.28-9). It is also worth noting that Whitman places the poet's hymn to death in the same italicized typescript as the bird's lesson-song in "Out of the Cradle." The second centerpiece of emotion directly follows the hymn and culminates in a reflection on the aftermath of the Civil War. The poet's evocation of the war dead is stark and harrowing: "battle-corpses, myriads of them, / And the white skeletons of young men, I saw them, / I saw the debris and debris of all the slain soldiers of the war" (15.15-17). But the lines that follow are even more striking, as Whitman confronts the impact of death on the bereaved and strikes a profound note of mature empathy. It is not the dead now "fully at rest" who need attending, but those left behind: "The living remain'd and suffer'd, the mother suffer'd, / And the wife and the child and the musing comrade suffer'd, / And the armies that remain'd suffer'd" (15.20-22) . Although a new way of thinking about life in relation to death, this focus on the response to death is in keeping with Whitman's earlier emphasis on how life and death are mysteriously connected in a cycle that can be better intuited than understood. Death's "outletsong" spans arange of registers and, like the notes of the bird in both "Cradle" and "Lilacs," is a "varying ever-altering song" (16.4).

The poems comprising the eigh teen-poem cluster Whitman grouped under the tide "Whispers of Heavenly Death" were composed primarily in the late 186Os following the Civil War. In many of the poems one gets the sense of the poet regaining his balance after the experience of the war, expressing an attitude toward death more speculative and hopeful, more philosophical but less "ecstatic" than the boy dancing on the shore in "Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking." The sequence begins with "Darest Thou Now O Soul," where Whitman asks his soul to accompany him to a "blank" and "unknown region," an "inaccessible land" (2, 9) Part of what seems an initial hesitancy in the poem stems from the poet's assertion that this unknown realm is sure to be devoid of human "voice," "touch," and "flesh" (5-6). When a reader pauses to consider the significance of these human elements on both Whitman the man and his poetic endeavor, as both are represented in “Leaves of Grass”, any surprise at a slightly tentative tone diminishes, for delight in fleshly contact and what "Song of Myself" terms the "hum" of the "valved voice" is one of die major strands binding this poet's project (5.5). Even in his late work, for Whitman to move toward any dimension lacking the press of fellow humanity, to ask his soul to leave its steadfast companion, the body, is to explore truly foreign terrain. But as with his earlier epics of psychological struggle and breakthrough, "The Sleepers" and "Cradle," Whitman offers a sudden, almost spontaneous breakthrough into a dimension of freedom and possibility, not a specific locality or even destination, only a state without "ties" or "bounds" where "we burst forth, we float" (13) . Again, as in the earlier "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry," the liquid element represents both freedom and acceptance of the unknown, an ability to feel part of the vastness of time and space without fear of being absorbed or obliterated. Here, and in the poem that follows, the title poem of the cluster, Whitman begins to lay the groundwork for movement into the realm of death by celebrating the possibilities of the unknown.

In the third poem, "Chanting the Square Deific," Whitman addresses what William James termed "the varieties of religious experience" (158) through an acknowledgment of the vastness of concepts of God. Whitman had made several earlier attempts at this poem, suggesting both the difficulty of the subject and the poet's determination to fully engage it. It first appeared in Sequel to Drum-Taps (1865-66) , and Gregory Eiselein has suggested that in initially placing the poem in this collection Whitman sought "a postwar message of reconciliation and religious consolation" (113). The poem begins by asserting that concepts of the divine are both iconic and multiple, old and new, evolving: "Chanting the square deific, out of the One advancing, out of the sides, / Out of the old and new, out of the square entirely divine, / Solid, four-sided, (all the sides needed,)" (1.3). In four relatively concise sections, Whitman evokes versions of four types of divinity: the traditional, all-judging God; the compassionate, healing God; the defiant, exiled angel; and the universal, timeless spirit of God. Each God pronounces his identity and names himself in his own voice, insisting on the various manifestations of his type through the history of religious beliefs. Hence, the God who speaks in section 1 identifies himself as "Jehovah," "Old Brahm," "Saturnius," "the Father," and "brown old Kronos," old and modern at the same time, "executing righteous judgments" (3-7). This elder, judging God is both beyond time and of time itself, unforgiving. In section 2 Whitman turns to "the cheerbringing God," "Lord Christ," "Hermes," and, in his evocation of the healing and compassionate God of love, suggests images of himself running throughout “Leaves of Grass”, most notably in the "Drum-Taps" sequence (2.4-9). While there are certainly aspects of Whitman the nonconformist in the revolter-Satan of section 3, readers will most likely feel that the God of section 2 is the deity most identified with by the "Walt Whitman" presented by the poet in “Leaves of Grass”. The most rhythmic of the four sections, the lines of section 2 are consistently long, swelling in movement, a catalogue of generosity following the actions of a God who, like the persona "Walt Whitman," absorbs and celebrates the world.

But in section 3 Whitman strikes his most original concept of faith by including Satan as a necessary fourth "side" in his refashioning of a conventional trinity. Whitman's language in this part of the poem presents an aspect of the spiritual life that is proud and resolute, refusing to be "rule[d]" (3.5), a "comrade of criminals, brother of slaves" (3. 2), a role again recalling the empathetic position of the poet in so many earlier poems in “Leaves of Grass”. Within the context of Whitman's evolving spiritual vision, the notion of an "aloof," "defiant" deity is less revolutionary than it seems. This is the nonconforming, ever-questing spirit that has always been a necessary part of the poet's conception of faith, American democracy, and American character. Whitman's Satan is the vital, energetic, crafty, and creative God inherent in the most complete human soul, as well as the prideful and nonconforming spirit that he envisions as the new American spirit, the dynamic world citizens he posits in "Democratic Vistas" and in poems that celebrate the independent, free-thinking America.

Whitman brings the different sides of human concepts of the divine together in section 4 with "Santa Spirita" or the Holy Spirit, merging the previous Gods into a harmonious entity "beyond" both heaven and hell, "lighter than light" (4.2). Whitman deviates from the traditional masculine phrasing of the Italian (Spirito Santo) and Latin (Spiritus Sanctus) in his naming of the unifying spirit, thereby emphasizing the universality of his vision of deity. In closing the poem, Whitman again returns the focus to the connection between the divine and his own poetic endeavor, having Santa Spirita declare that it is her breath that gives life to "these songs" (4.10) . All along, language and poetry have been closely tied to the spiritual quest, and even in an attempt at an all-encompassing summation of spiritual conceptions, the poet is unable to disassociate divinity from his own enterprise.

The "Whispers" cluster reaches its culmination in one of Whitman's greatest achievements in the short form, "A Noiseless Patient Spider." Ten lines in length, the poem compares the quest of the soul to that of an "isolated" spider seeking to "explore the vacant vast surrounding" (3). In the first five lines Whitman offers an observation of the spider's efforts as it launches "filament" after filament into the void, and then in the second half of the poem he turns to directly address his soul, similarly "detached" yet seeking connection. Again, as with most of the poems in the "Whispers" sequence, it is striking that the poet who found so many connections - with other human beings, physical phenomena, and himself - in the poems of the 185Os and early 186Os should at this late stage present himself as solitary and still optimistically seeking connections amidst an unknown and mysterious universe. But the willingness to exist "in measureless oceans of space, / Ceaselessly musing, venturing, throwing" remains as much a part of Whitman's essential being as in the early poems of more intense, ecstatic psychological exploration (7-8) . What has changed is the poet's stance, his attitude toward his endeavor. More patient, more musing, he is in his late phase less urgent and more persistent in his questing and questioning than in his longer poems of the 185Os such as "The Sleepers" and "Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking."

In what is widely considered one of his last major poems, Whitman in "Passage to India" (1871) returns to the endeavor undertaken in 1856 with "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry," the attempt to transcend spiritually the boundaries of time and space. Ostensibly celebrating the scientific and technological achievements of the day, particularly the completion of the North American transcontinental railroad, opening of the Suez Canal, and laying of Atlantic cable, the poem's true concern is akin to that of the earlier poems, how to face confidently the omnipotence of the external universe. The answer lies in turning to "thee O soul, thou actual Me," allowing the poet-speaker to not "shrivel at the thought of God, / At Nature and its wonders, Time and Space and Death" (8.32-34). Whitman personifies the soul as a questing, journeying entity, carrying on the "questionings" and "feverish explorations" of Adam and Eve and "their myriad progeny after them" (5.9). Consistent with his earlier emphasis on the role of the poet as amalgamator and uniter, Whitman in "Passage to India" presents the poet as "the true son of God" whose songs can "soothe," "justify," "speak," and "bind" the disparate elements of the material world and the searching spirit (5.25-31 ) . The poem exemplifies Kuebrich's claim that in Whitman, "spiritual experience comes not from avoiding this world but rather through engaging it more fully" (4) .

But Whitman's reconciliation of the material and the spiritual is a more difficult task nearly twenty years after he penned the initial poems of the 1855 “Leaves of Grass”. David Reynolds has discussed Whitman's ambivalence toward the Gilded Age, his simultaneous wariness of the growth of capitalism and propensity to celebrate technological advance as "allied in its roaring freedom, he thought, to his own poetry" (496). Perhaps this ambivalence is what accounts for the rhetorical and emotional unevenness of the poem. Early in the poem, Whitman's catalogues of the new commerce of east and west, both in North America and "between Europe and Asia" seems rather forced, lacking the authenticity of the catalogues of workers in the 1855, 1856, and 1860 editions of Leaves (3.24). But when Whitman turns his attention to the journey and achievements of the soul, the poem picks up in intensity and feeling. Both unifying and transcending time and history, the soul leads man back to "primal thought" and "innocent intuitions" (7.1, 9). In the poem's seventh section, one of its briefest, Whitman's language suggests circularity, return, and completion, an "early paradise" of regenerative, imaginative fulfillment (7.8). As in "The Sleepers," it is the imaginative spirit and vision of the poet that brings exploration and seeking to its point of unification and overall well-being. Yet for all his naming of particulars in the poem, both of place and of human achievement, the end-point of the spiritual journey is once again a state afloat, a threshold of not just illumination but further, even "reckless," exploration. The poem ends with the poet and his soul setting out for "the deep waters" where "mariner has notyet dared to go" (9.25) . Amidstall the profound discoveries and pronouncements running through the major poems of the past two decades, the poet near the end of his life's work refuses to rest in certainty and assurance. His position remains what it has essentially been from the outset, a lifelong exploration and embrace of uncertainty as the central component of spirituality.


Aspiz, Harold. "Death." LeMaster and Kummings 166-69.

_______ . So Long!: Walt Whitman's Poetry of Death. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 2004.

Asselineau, Roger. "Grass and Liquid Trees: The Cosmic Vision of Walt Whitman." Whitman East & West: New Contexts for Reading Walt Whitman. Ed. Ed Folsom. Iowa City: U of Iowa P, 2002. 221-27.

Bauerlein, Mark. "Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking." LeMaster and Kummings 495-97.

Chari, V.K Whitman in the Light ofVedantic Mysticism: An Interpretation. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 1969.

Eiselein, Gregory. "Chanting the Square Déifie." LeMaster and Kummings 112-13.

Erkkila, Betsy. Whitman the Political Poet. New York: Oxford UP, 1989.

Erkkila, Betsy, and Jay Grossman, eds. Breaking Bounds: Whitman and American Cultural Studies. New York: Oxford UP, 1996.

Gardner, John F. American Heralds of the Spirit: Emerson, Whitman, and Melville. Hudson, NY: Lindisfarne P, 1992.

Hutchinson, George. The Ecstatic Whitman: Literary Shamanism and the Crisis of the Union. Columbus: Ohio State UP, 1986.

Irwin, John. "Whitman: Hieroglyphic Bibles and Phallic Songs." “Leaves of Grass” and Other Writings: A Norton Critical Edition. Ed. Michael Moon. New York: Norton, 2002. 863-72.

James, William. The Varieties of Religious Experience. William James: Writings 1902-1910. New York: The Library of America, 1984.

Killingsworth, M. Jimmie. Walt Whitman and the Earth: A Study in Ecopoetics. Iowa City: U of Iowa P, 2004.

Kuebrich, David. Minor Prophecy: Walt Whitman's New American Religion.

Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1989.

LeMaster, J. R., and Donald D. Kummings, eds. Walt Whitman: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland, 1998.

Morris, Roy, Jr. The Better Angel: Walt Whitman in the Civil War. New York: Oxford UP, 2005.

Natiianson, Tenney. Whitman 's Presence: Body, Voice, and Writing in “Leaves of Grass”. New York: New York UP, 1992.

Pannapacker,William. Revised Lives: Whitman, Religion, and Constructions of Identity in Nineteenth-Century Anglo-American Culture. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Reynolds, David S. Walt Whitman's America: A Cultural Biography. New York: Knopf, 1995.

Thomas, M. Wynn. "Fratricide and Brotherly Love: Whitman and the Civil War." The Cambridge Companion to Walt Whitman. Ed. Ezra Greenspan. New York: Cambridge UP, 1995. 27-44.

Whitman, Walt. Collect, and Other Prose. Vol. 2 of Prose Works 1892. Ed. Floyd Stovall. New ed. New York: New York UP, 2007.

_______ . Complete Poetry and Collected Prose. New York: Library of America, 1982. [All quotations from the poetry are taken from this text.]

_______ . “Leaves of Grass” and Other Writings. Ed. Michael Moon. Norton Critical Edition, 2nd ed. New York: Norton, 2002.

Credits: Ernest Smith. Papers on Language and Literature. Edwardsville: Summer 2007. Vol. 43, Iss. 3; pg. 227, 37 pgs.

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Thursday, August 27, 2009

Detailed Biography and Introduction to Walt Whitman

Family Origins
Walt Whitman, arguably America's most influential and innovative poet, was born into a working class family in West Hills, New York, a village near Hempstead, Long Island, on May 31, 1819, just thirty years after George Washington was inaugurated as the first president of the newly formed United States. Walt Whitman was named after his father, a carpenter and farmer who was 34 years old when Whitman was born. Walter Whitman, Sr., had been born just after the end of the American Revolution; always a liberal thinker, he knew and admired Thomas Paine. Trained as a carpenter but struggling to find work, he had taken up farming by the time Walt was born, but when Walt was just about to turn four, Walter Sr. moved the family to the growing city of Brooklyn, across from New York City, or "Mannahatta" as Whitman would come to call it in his celebratory writings about the city that was just emerging as the nation's major urban center. One of Walt's favorite stories about his childhood concerned the time General Lafayette visited New York and, selecting the six-year-old Walt from the crowd, lifted him up and carried him. Whitman later came to view this event as a kind of laying on of hands, the French hero of the American Revolution anointing the future poet of democracy in the energetic city of immigrants, where the new nation was being invented day by day.

Walter Whitman Sr. was of English stock, and his marriage in 1816 to Louisa Van Velsor, of Dutch and Welsh stock, led to what Walt always considered a fertile tension in the Whitman children between a more smoldering, brooding Puritanical temperament and a sunnier, more outgoing Dutch disposition. Whitman's father was a stern and sometimes hot-tempered man, maybe an alcoholic, whom Whitman respected but for whom he never felt a great deal of affection. His mother, on the other hand, served throughout his life as his emotional touchstone. There was a special affectional bond between Whitman and his mother, and the long correspondence between them records a kind of partnership in attempting to deal with the family crises that mounted over the years, as Jesse became mentally unstable and violent and eventually had to be institutionalized, as Hannah entered a disastrous marriage with an abusive husband, as Andrew became an alcoholic and married a prostitute before dying of ill health in his 30s, and as Edward required increasingly dedicated care.

A Brooklyn Childhood and LongIsland Interludes

During Walt's childhood, the Whitman family moved around Brooklyn a great deal as Walter Sr. tried, mostly unsuccessfully, to cash in on the city's quick growth by speculating in real estate—buying an empty lot, building a house, moving his family in, then trying to sell it at a profit to start the whole process over again. Walt loved living close to the East River, where as a child he rode the ferries back and forth to New York City, imbibing an experience that would remain significant for him his whole life: he loved ferries and the people who worked on them, and his 1856 poem eventually entitled "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry" explored the full resonance of the experience. The act of crossing became, for Whitman, one of the most evocative events in his life—at once practical, enjoyable, and mystical. The daily commute suggested the passage from life to death to life again and suggested too the passage from poet to reader to poet via the vehicle of the poem. By crossing Brooklyn ferry, Whitman first discovered the magical commutations that he would eventually accomplish in his poetry.

While in Brooklyn, Whitman attended the newly founded Brooklyn public schools for six years, sharing his classes with students of a variety of ages and backgrounds, though most were poor, since children from wealthy families attended private schools. In Whitman's school, all the students were in the same room, except African Americans, who had to attend a separate class on the top floor. Whitman had little to say about his rudimentary formal schooling, except that he hated corporal punishment, a common practice in schools and one that he would attack in later years in both his journalism and his fiction. But most of Whitman's meaningful education came outside of school, when he visited museums, went to libraries, and attended lectures. He always recalled the first great lecture he heard, when he was ten years old, given by the radical Quaker leader Elias Hicks, an acquaintance of Whitman's father and a close friend of Whitman's grandfather Jesse. While Whitman's parents were not members of any religious denomination, Quaker thought always played a major role in Whitman's life, in part because of the early influence of Hicks, and in part because his mother Louisa's family had a Quaker background, especially Whitman's grandmother Amy Williams Van Velsor, whose death—the same year Whitman first heard Hicks—hit young Walt hard, since he had spent many happy days at the farm of his grandmother and colorful grandfather, Major Cornelius Van Velsor.
Visiting his grandparents on Long Island was one of Whitman's favorite boyhood activities, and during those visits he developed his lifelong love of the Long Island shore, sensing the mystery of that territory where water meets land, fluid melds with solid. One of Whitman's greatest poems, "Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking," is on one level a reminiscence of his boyhood on the Long Island shore and of how his desire to be a poet arose in that landscape. The idyllic Long Island countryside formed a sharp contrast to the crowded energy of the quickly growing Brooklyn-New York City urban center. Whitman's experiences as a young man alternated between the city and the Long Island countryside, and he was attracted to both ways of life. This dual allegiance can be traced in his poetry, which is often marked by shifts between rural and urban settings.

Self-Education and First Career

By the age of eleven, Whitman was done with his formal education (by this time he had far more schooling than either of his parents had received), and he began his life as a laborer, working first as an office boy for some prominent Brooklyn lawyers, who gave him a subscription to a circulating library, where his self-education began. Always an autodidact, Whitman absorbed an eclectic but wide-ranging education through his visits to museums, his nonstop reading, and his penchant for engaging everyone he met in conversation and debate. While most other major writers of his time enjoyed highly structured, classical educations at private institutions, Whitman forged his own rough and informal curriculum of literature, theater, history, geography, music, and archeology out of the developing public resources of America's fastest growing city.

In 1831, Whitman became an apprentice on the Long Island Patriot, a liberal, working-class newspaper, where he learned the printing trade and was first exposed to the excitement of putting words into print, observing how thought and event could be quickly transformed into language and immediately communicated to thousands of readers. At the age of twelve, young Walt was already contributing to the newspaper and experiencing the exhilaration of getting his own words published. Whitman's first signed article, in the upscale New York Mirror in 1834, expressed his amazement at how there were still people alive who could remember "the present great metropolitan city as a little dorp or village; all fresh and green as it was, from its beginning," and he wrote of a slave, "Negro Harry," who had died in1758 at age 120 and who could remember New York "when there were but three houses in it." Even late in his life, he could still recall the excitement of seeing this first article in print: "How it made my heart double-beat to see my piece on the pretty white paper, in nice type." For his entire life, he would maintain this fascination with the materiality of printed objects, with the way his voice and identity could be embodied in type and paper.

Living away from home—the rest of his family moved back to the West Hills area in 1833, leaving fourteen-year-old Walt alone in the city—and learning how to set type under the Patriot's foreman printer William Hartshorne, Whitman was gaining skills and experiencing an independence that would mark his whole career: he would always retain a typesetter's concern for how his words looked on a page, what typeface they were dressed in, what effects various spatial arrangements had, and he would always retain his stubborn independence, never marrying and living alone for most of his life. These early years on his own in Brooklyn and New York remained a formative influence on his writing, for it was during this time that he developed the habit of close observation of the ever-shifting panorama of the city, and a great deal of his journalism, poetry, and prose came to focus on catalogs of urban life and the history of New York City, Brooklyn, and Long Island. Walt's brother Thomas Jefferson, known to everyone in the family as "Jeff," was born during the summer of 1833, soon after his family had resettled on a farm and only weeks after Walt had joined the crowds in Brooklyn that warmly welcomed the newly re-elected president, Andrew Jackson. Brother Jeff, fourteen years younger than Walt, would become the sibling he felt closest to, their bond formed when they traveled together to New Orleans in 1848, when Jeff was about the same age as Walt was when Jeff was born. But while Jeff was a young child, Whitman spent little time with him. Walt remained separated from his family and furthered his education by absorbing the power of language from a variety of sources: various circulating libraries (where he read Sir Walter Scott, James Fenimore Cooper, and other romance novelists), theaters (where he fell in love with Shakespeare's plays and saw Junius Booth, John Wilkes Booth's father, play the title role in Richard III, always Whitman's favorite play), and lectures (where he heard, among others, Frances Wright, the Scottish radical emancipationist and women's rights advocate). By the time he was sixteen, Walt was a journeyman printer and compositor in New York City. His future career seemed set in the newspaper and printing trades, but then two of New York's worst fires wiped out the major printing and business centers of the city, and, in the midst of a dismal financial climate, Whitman retreated to rural Long Island, joining his family at Hempstead in 1836. As he turned 17, the five-year veteran of the printing trade was already on the verge of a career change.

Schoolteaching Years

His unlikely next career was that of a teacher. Although his own formal education was, by today's standards, minimal, he had developed as a newspaper apprentice the skills of reading and writing, more than enough for the kind of teaching he would find himself doing over the next few years. He knew he did not want to become a farmer, and he rebelled at his father's attempts to get him to work on the new family farm. Teaching was therefore an escape but was also clearly a job he was forced to take in bad economic times, and some of the unhappiest times of his life were these five years when he taught school in at least ten different Long Island towns, rooming in the homes of his students, teaching three-month terms to large and heterogeneous classes (some with over eighty students, ranging in age from five to fifteen, for up to nine hours a day), getting very little pay, and having to put up with some very unenlightened people. After the excitement of Brooklyn and New York, these often isolated Long Island towns depressed Whitman, and he recorded his disdain for country people in a series of letters (not discovered until the 1980s) that he wrote to a friend named Abraham Leech: "Never before have I entertained so low an idea of the beauty and perfection of man's nature, never have I seen humanity in so degraded a shape, as here," he wrote from Woodbury in 1840: "Ignorance, vulgarity, rudeness, conceit, and dulness are the reigning gods of this deuced sink of despair."

The little evidence we have of his teaching (mostly from short recollections by a few former students) suggests that Whitman employed what were then progressive techniques—encouraging students to think aloud rather than simply recite, refusing to punish by paddling, involving his students in educational games, and joining his students in baseball and card games.

By 1841, Whitman's second career was at an end. He had interrupted his teaching in 1838 to try his luck at starting his own newspaper, The Long Islander, devoted to covering the towns around Huntington. He bought a press and type and hired his younger brother George as an assistant, but, despite his energetic efforts to edit, publish, write for, and deliver the new paper, it folded within a year, and he reluctantly returned to the classroom. Newspaper work made him happy, but teaching did not, and two years later, he abruptly quit his job as an itinerant schoolteacher. The reasons for his decision continue to interest biographers It seems far more likely that Whitman gave up schoolteaching because he found himself temperamentally unsuited for it. And, besides, he had a new career opening up: he decided now to become a fiction writer. Best of all, to nurture that career, he would need to return to New York City and re-establish himself in the world of journalism.

Mature Journalist

By the mid-1840s, Whitman had a keen awareness of the cultural resources of New York City and probably had more inside knowledge of New York journalism than anyone else in Brooklyn. The Long Island Star recognized his value as a journalist and, once he resettled in Brooklyn, quickly arranged to have him compose a series of editorials, two or three a week, from September 1845 to March 1846. With the death of William Marsh, the editor of the Brooklyn Eagle, Whitman became chief editor of that paper (he served from March 5, 1846 to January 18, 1848). He dedicated himself to journalism in these years and published little of his own poetry and fiction. However, he introduced literary reviewing to the Eagle, and he commented, if often superficially, on writers such as Carlyle and Emerson, who in the next decade would have a significant impact on Leaves of Grass. The editor's role gave Whitman a platform from which to comment on various issues from street lighting to politics, from banking to poetry. But Whitman claimed that what he most valued was not the ability to promote his opinions, but rather something more intimate, the "curious kind of sympathy . . . that arises in the mind of a newspaper conductor with the public he serves. He gets to love them."

For Whitman, to serve the public was to frame issues in accordance with working class interests—and for Whitman this usually meant white working class interests. He sometimes dreaded slave labor as a "black tide" that could overwhelm white workingmen. He was adamant that slavery should not be allowed into the new western territories because he feared whites would not migrate to an area where their own labor was devalued unfairly by the institution of black slavery. Periodically, Whitman expressed outrage at practices that furthered slavery itself: for example, he was incensed at laws that made possible the importation of slaves by way of Brazil. Like Lincoln, he consistently opposed slavery and its further extension, even while he knew (again like Lincoln) that the more extreme abolitionists threatened the Union itself. In a famous incident, Whitman lost his position as editor of the Eagle because the publisher, Isaac Van Anden, as an "Old Hunker," sided with conservative pro-slavery Democrats and could no longer abide Whitman's support of free soil and the Wilmot Proviso (a legislative proposal designed to stop the expansion of slavery into the western territories).

New Orleans Sojourn

Fortunately, on February 9, 1846, Whitman met, between acts of a performance at the Broadway Theatre in New York, J. E. McClure, who intended to launch a New Orleans paper, the Crescent, with an associate, A. H. Hayes. In a stunningly short time—reportedly in fifteen minutes—McClure struck a deal with Whitman and provided him with an advance to cover his travel expenses to New Orleans. Whitman's younger brother Jeff , then only fifteen years old, decided to travel with Walt and work as an office boy on the paper. The journey—by train, steamboat, and stagecoach—widened Walt's sense of the country's scope and diversity, as he left the New York City and Long Island area for the first time. Once in New Orleans, Walt did not have the famous New Orleans romance with a beautiful Creole woman, a relationship first imagined by the biographer Henry Bryan Binns and further elaborated by others who were charmed by the city's exoticism and who were eager to identify heterosexual desires in the poet. The published versions of his New Orleans poem called "Once I Pass'd Through a Populous City" seem to recount a romance with a woman, though the original manuscript reveals that he initially wrote with a male lover in mind.

Whatever the nature of his personal attachments in New Orleans, he certainly encountered a city full of color and excitement. He wandered the French quarter and the old French market, attracted by "the Indian and negro hucksters with their wares" and the "great Creole mulatto woman" who sold him the best coffee he ever tasted. He enjoyed the "splendid and roomy bars" (with "exquisite wines, and the perfect and mild French brandy") that were packed with soldiers who had recently returned from the war with Mexico, and his first encounters with young men who had seen battle, many of them recovering from war wounds, occurred in New Orleans, a precursor of his Civil War experiences. He was entranced by the intoxicating mix of languages—French and Spanish and English—in that cosmopolitan city and began to see the possibilities of a distinctive But the exotic nature of the Southern city was not without its horrors: slaves were auctioned within an easy walk of where the Whitman brothers were lodging at the Tremont House, around the corner from Lafayette Square. Whitman never forgot the experience of seeing humans on the selling block, and he kept a poster of a slave auction hanging in his room for many years as a reminder that such dehumanizing events occurred regularly in the United States. The slave auction was an experience that he would later incorporate in his poem "I Sing the Body Electric."

Walt felt wonderfully healthy in New Orleans, concluding that it agreed with him better than New York, but Jeff was often sick with dysentery, and his illness and homesickness contributed to their growing desire to return home. The final decision, though, was taken out of the hands of the brothers, as the Crescent owners exhibited what Whitman called a "singular sort of coldness" toward their new editor. They probably feared that this northern editor would embarrass them because of his unorthodox ideas, especially about slavery. Whitman's sojourn in New Orleans lasted only three months.

Budding Poet

His trip South produced a few lively sketches of New Orleans life and at least one poem, "Sailing the Mississippi at Midnight," in which the steamboat journey becomes a symbolic journey of life:

Vast and starless, the pall of heaven
Laps on the trailing pall below;
And forward, forward, in solemn darkness,
As if to the sea of the lost we go.

Throughout much of the 1840s Whitman wrote conventional poems like this one, often echoing Bryant, and, at times, Shelley and Keats. The poetry of these years is artificial in diction and didactic in purpose; Whitman rarely seems inspired or innovative. Instead, tired language usually renders the poems inert. By the end of the decade, however, Whitman had undertaken serious self-education in the art of poetry, conducted in a typically unorthodox way—he clipped essays and reviews about leading British and American writers, and as he studied them he began to be a more aggressive reader and a more resistant respondent. His marginalia on these articles demonstrate that he was learning to write not in the manner of his predecessors but against them.

The mystery about Whitman in the late 1840s is the speed of his transformation from an unoriginal and conventional poet into one who abruptly abandoned conventional rhyme and meter and, in jottings begun at this time, exploited the odd loveliness of homely imagery, finding beauty in the commonplace but expressing it in an uncommon way. What is known as Whitman's earliest notebook (called "albot Wilson" in the Notebooks and Unpublished Prose Manuscripts) may have been written as early as 1847, though much of the writing probably derives from the early 1850s. This extraordinary document contains early articulations of some of Whitman's most compelling ideas. Famous passages on "Dilation," on "True noble expanding American character," and on the "soul enfolding orbs" are memorable prose statements that express the newly expansive sense of self that Whitman was discovering, and we find him here creating the conditions—setting the tone and articulating the ideas—that would allow for the writing of Leaves of Grass.

Racial Politics and the Origins of Leaves of Grass

A pivotal and empowering change came over Whitman at this time of poetic transformation. His politics—and especially his racial attitudes—underwent a profound alteration. As we have noted, Whitman the journalist spoke to the interests of the day and from a particular class perspective when he advanced the interests of white workingmen while seeming, at times, unconcerned about the plight of blacks. Perhaps the New Orleans experience had prompted a change in attitude, a change that was intensified by an increasing number of friendships with radical thinkers and writers who led Whitman to rethink his attitudes toward the issue of race. Whatever the cause, in Whitman's future-oriented poetry blacks become central to his new literary project and central to his understanding of democracy. Notebook passages assert that the poet has the "divine grammar of all tongues, and says indifferently and alike How are you friend? to the President in the midst of his cabinet, and Good day my brother, to Sambo among the hoes of the sugar field."

It appears that Whitman's increasing frustration with the Democratic party's compromising approaches to the slavery crisis led him to continue his political efforts through the more subtle and indirect means of experimental poetry, a poetry that he hoped would be read by masses of average Americans and would transform their way of thinking. In any event, his first notebook lines in the manner of Leaves of Grass focus directly on the fundamental issue dividing the United States. His notebook breaks into free verse for the first time in lines that seek to bind opposed categories, to link black and white, to join master and slave:

I am the poet of the body
And I am the poet of the soul
And I am
I go with the slaves of the earth equally with he masters
And I will stand between the masters and the slaves,
Entering into both so that both will understand me alike.

The audacity of that final line remains striking. While most people were lining up on one side or another, Whitman placed himself in that space—sometimes violent, sometimes erotic, always volatile—between master and slave. His extreme political despair led him to replace what he now named the "scum" of corrupt American politics in the 1850s with his own persona—a shaman, a culture-healer, an all-encompassing "I."

The American "I"

That "I" became the main character of Leaves of Grass, the explosive book of twelve untitled poems that he wrote in the early years of the 1850s, and for which he set some of the type, designed the cover, and carefully oversaw all the details. When Whitman wrote "I, now thirty-six years old, in perfect health, begin," he announced a new identity for himself, and his novitiate came at an age quite advanced for a poet. Keats by that age had been dead for ten years; Byron had died at exactly that age; Wordsworth and Coleridge produced Lyrical Ballads while both were in their twenties; Bryant had written "Thanatopsis," his best-known poem, at age sixteen; and most other great Romantic poets Whitman admired had done their most memorable work early in their adult lives. Whitman, in contrast, by the time he had reached his mid-thirties, seemed destined, if he were to achieve fame in any field, to do so as a journalist or perhaps as a writer of fiction, but no one could have guessed that this middle-aged writer of sensationalistic fiction and sentimental verse would suddenly begin to produce work that would eventually lead many to view him as America's greatest and most revolutionary poet.

The mystery that has intrigued biographers and critics over the years has been about what prompted the transformation: did Whitman undergo some sort of spiritual illumination that opened the floodgates of a radical new kind of poetry, or was this poetry the result of an original and carefully calculated strategy to blend journalism, oratory, popular music, and other cultural forces into an innovative American voice like the one Ralph Waldo Emerson had called for in his essay "The Poet"? "Our log-rolling, our stumps and their politics, our fisheries, our Negroes, and Indians, our boasts, and our repudiations, the wrath of rogues, and the pusillanimity of honest men, the Northern trade, the Southern planting, the Western clearing, Oregon and Texas, are yet unsung," wrote Emerson; "Yet America is a poem in our eyes; its ample geography dazzles the imagination, and it will not wait long for metres." Whitman began writing poetry that seemed, wildly yet systematically, to record every single thing that Emerson called for, and he began his preface to the 1855 Leaves by paraphrasing Emerson: "The United States themselves are essentially the greatest poem." Was he truly the intoxicated poet Emerson imagined or was he the architect of a poetic persona that cleverly mimicked Emerson's description?

Whitman seems, then, to have been both inspired poet and skilled craftsman, at once under the spell of his newly discovered and intoxicating free verse style while also remaining very much in control of it, adjusting and altering and rearranging. For the rest of his life, he would add, delete, fuse, separate, and rearrange poems as he issued six very distinct editions of Leaves of Grass. Emerson once described Whitman's poetry as "a remarkable mixture of the Bhagvat Ghita and the New York Herald," and that odd joining of the scriptural and the vernacular, the transcendent and the mundane, effectively captures the quality of Whitman's work, work that most readers experience as simultaneously magical and commonplace, sublime and prosaic. It was work produced by a poet who was both sage and huckster, who touched the gods with ink-smudged fingers, and who was concerned as much with the sales and reviews of his book as with the state of the human soul.

The First Edition of Leaves of Grass

Whitman paid out of his own pocket for the production of the first edition of his book and had only 795 copies printed, which he bound at various times as his finances permitted. He always recalled the book as appearing, fittingly, on the Fourth of July, as a kind of literary Independence Day. His joy at getting the book published was quickly diminished by the death of his father within a week of the appearance of Leaves. Walter Sr. had been ill for several years, and though he and Walt had never been particularly close, they had only recently traveled together to West Hills, Long Island, to the old Whitman homestead where Walt was born. Now his father's death along with his older brother Jesse's absence as a merchant marine (and later Jesse's growing violence and mental instability) meant that Walt would become the father-substitute for the family, the person his mother and siblings would turn to for help and guidance. Walt had taken on a number of adult responsibilities—buying boots for his brothers, for instance, and holding the title to the family house as early as 1847. Now, however, he became the only person his mother and siblings could turn to.

But even given these growing family burdens, he managed to concentrate on his new book, and, just as he oversaw all the details of its composition and printing, so now did he supervise its distribution and try to control its reception. Even though Whitman claimed that the first edition sold out, the book in fact had very poor sales. He sent copies to a number of well-known writers (including John Greenleaf Whittier, who, legend has it, threw his copy in the fire), but only one responded, and that, fittingly, was Emerson, who recognized in Whitman's work the very spirit and tone and style he had called for. "I greet you at the beginning of a great career," Emerson wrote in his private letter to Whitman, noting that Leaves of Grass "meets the demand I am always making of what seemed the sterile and stingy nature, as if too much handiwork, or too much lymph in the temperament, were making our western wits fat and mean." Whitman's was poetry that would literally get the country in shape, Emerson believed, give it shape, and help work off its excess of aristocratic fat.

Whitman's book was an extraordinary accomplishment: after trying for over a decade to address in journalism and fiction the social issues (such as education, temperance, slavery, prostitution, immigration, democratic representation) that challenged thenew nation, Whitman now turned to an unprecedented form, a kind of experimental verse cast in unrhymed long lines with no identifiable meter, the voice an uncanny combination of oratory, journalism, and the Bible—haranguing, mundane, and prophetic—all in the service of identifying a new American democratic attitude, an absorptive and accepting voice that would catalog the diversity of the country and manage to hold it all in a vast, single, unified identity. "Do I contradict myself?" Whitman asked confidently toward the end of the long poem he would come to call "Song of Myself": "Very well then . . . . I contradict myself; / I am large . . . . I contain multitudes." This new voice spoke confidently of union at a time of incredible division and tension in the culture, and it spoke with the assurance of one for whom everything, no matter how degraded, could be celebrated as part of itself: " What is commonest and cheapest and nearest and easiest is Me." His work echoed with the lingo of the American urban working class and reached deep into the various corners of the roiling nineteenth-century culture, reverberating with the nation's stormy politics, its motley music, its new technologies, its fascination with science, and its evolving pride in an American language that was forming as a tongue distinct from British English.

Though it was no secret who the author of Leaves of Grass was, the fact that Whitman did not put his name on the title page was an unconventional and suggestive act (his name would in fact not appear on a title page of Leaves until the 1876 "Author's Edition" of the book, and then only when Whitman signed his name on the title page as each book was sold). The absence of a name indicated, perhaps, that the author of this book believed he spoke not for himself so much as for merica. But opposite the title page was a portrait of Whitman, an engraving made from a daguerreotype that the photographer Gabriel Harrison had made during the summer of 1854. It has become the most famous frontispiece in literary history, showing Walt in workman's clothes, shirt open, hat on and cocked to the side, standing insouciantly and fixing the reader with a challenging stare. It is a full-body pose that indicates Whitman's re-calibration of the role of poet as the democratic spokesperson who no longer speaks only from the intellect and with the formality of tradition and education: the new poet pictured in Whitman's book is a poet who speaks from and with the whole body and who writes outside, in Nature, not in the library. It was what Whitman called "al fresco" poetry, poetry written outside the walls, the bounds, of convention and tradition.

The 1856 Leaves

Within a few months of producing his first edition of Leaves, Whitman was already hard at work on the second edition. While in the first, he had given his long lines room to stretch across the page by printing the book on large paper, in the second edition he sacrificed the spacious pages and produced what he later called his "chunky fat book," his earliest attempt to create a pocket-size edition that would offer the reader what Whitman thought of as the "ideal pleasure"—"to put a book in your pocket and [go] off to the seashore or the forest." On the cover of this edition, published and distributed by Fowler and Wells (though the firm carefully distanced themselves from the book by proclaiming that "the author is still his own publisher"), Whitman emblazoned one of the first "blurbs" in American publishing history: without asking Emerson's permission, he printed in gold on the spine of the book the opening words of Emerson's letter to him: "I greet you at the beginning of a great career," followed by Emerson's name. And, to generate publicity for the volume, he appended to the volume a group of reviews of the first edition—including three he wrote himself along with a few negative reviews—and called the gathering Leaves-Droppings. Whitman was a pioneer of the "any publicity is better than no publicity" strategy. At the back of the book, he printed Emerson's entire letter (again, without permission) and wrote a long public letter back—a kind of apologia for his poetry—addressing it to "Master." Although he would later downplay the influence of Emerson on his work, at this time, he later recalled, he had "Emerson-on-the-brain."

With four times as many pages as the first edition, the 1856 Leaves added twenty new poems (including the powerful "Sun-Down Poem," later called "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry") to the original twelve in the 1855 edition. Those original twelve had been untitled in 1855, but Whitman was doing all he could to make the new edition look and feel different: small pages instead of large, a fat book instead of a thin one, and long titles for his poems instead of none at all. So the untitled introductory poem from the first edition that would eventually be named "Song of Myself" was in 1856 called "Poem of Walt Whitman, an American," and the poem that would become "This Compost" appeared here as "Poem of Wonder at the Resurrection of The Wheat." Some titles seemed to challenge the very bounds of titling by incorporating rolling catalogs like the poems themselves: "To a Foil'd European Revolutionaire" appeared as "Liberty Poem for Asia, Africa, Europe, America, Australia, Cuba, and The Archipelagoes of the Sea." As if to counter some of the early criticism that he was not really writing poetry at all—the review in Life Illustrated, for example, called Whitman's work "lines of rhythmical prose, or a series of utterances (we know not what else to call them)"—Whitman put the word "Poem" in the title of all thirty-two works in the 1856 Leaves. Like them or not, Whitman seemed to be saying, they are poems, and more and more of them were on the way. But, despite his efforts to re-make his book, the results were depressingly the same: sales of the thousand copies that were printed were even poorer than for the first edition.

The Bohemian Years
In these years, Whitman was in fact working hard at becoming a poet by forging literary connections: he entered the literary world in a way he never had as a fiction writer or journalist, meeting some of the nation's best-known writers, beginning to socialize with a literary and artistic crowd, and cultivating an image as an artist. Emerson had come to visit Whitman at the end of 1855 (they went back to Emerson's room at the elegant Astor Hotel, where Whitman—dressed as informally as he was in his frontispiece portrait—was denied admission); this was the first of many meetings the two would have over the next twenty-five years, as their relationship turned into one of grudging respect for each other mixed with mutual suspicion. The next year, Henry David Thoreau and Bronson Alcott visited Whitman's home (Alcott described Thoreau and Whitman as each "surveying the other curiously, like two beasts, each wondering what the other would do").

Whitman also came to befriend a number of visual artists, like the sculptor Henry Kirke Brown, the painter Elihu Vedder, and the photographer Gabriel Harrison. And he came to know a number of women's rights activists and writers, some of whom became ardent readers and supporters of Leaves of Grass. He became particularly close to Abby Price, Paulina Wright Davis, Sarah Tyndale, and Sara Payson Willis (who, under the pseudonym Fanny Fern wrote a popular newspaper column and many popular books, including Fern Leaves from Fanny' s Portfolio [1853], the cover of which Whitman imitated for his first edition of Leaves). These women's radical ideas about sexual equality had a growing impact on Whitman's poetry. He knew a number of abolitionist writers at this time, including Moncure Conway, and Whitman wrote some vitriolic attacks on the fugitive slave law and the moral bankruptcy of American politics, but these pieces (notably "The Eighteenth Presidency!") were never published and remain vestiges of yet another career—stump speaker, political pundit—that Whitman flirted with but never pursued.

Whitman also began in the late 1850s to become a regular at Pfaff's saloon, a favorite hangout for bohemian artists in New York.

It was at Pfaff's, too, that Whitman joined the "Fred Gray Association," a loose confederation of young men who seemed anxious to explore new possibilities of male-male affection. It may have been at Pfaff's that Whitman met Fred Vaughan, an intriguing mystery-figure in Whitman biography. Whitman and Vaughan, a young Irish stage driver, clearly had an intense relationship at this time, perhaps inspiring the sequence of homoerotic love poems Whitman called "Live Oak, with Moss, poems that would become the heart of his Calamus cluster, which appeared in the 1860 edition of Leaves. These poems recor a despair about the failure of the relationship, and the loss of Whitman's bond with Vaughan—who soon married, had four children, and would only sporadically keep in touch with Whitman—was clearly the source of some deep unhappiness for the poet.

1860 Edition of Leaves

Whitman's re-made self-image is evident on the frontispiece of the new edition of Leaves that appeared in 1860. It would be the only time Whitman used this portrait, an engraving based on a painting done by Whitman's artist friend Charles Hine. Whitman's friends called it the "Byronic portrait," and Whitman does look more like the conventional image of a poet—with coiffure and cravat—than he ever did before or after. This is the portrait of an artist who has devoted significant time to his image and one who has also clearly enjoyed his growing notoriety among the arty crowd at Pfaff's.

Ever since the 1856 edition appeared, Whitman had been writing poems at a furious pace; within a year of the 1856 edition's appearance, he wrote nearly seventy new poems. He continued to have them set in type by the Rome brothers and other printer friends, as if he assumed that he would inevitably be publishing them himself, since no commercial publisher had indicated an interest in his book. But there was another reason Whitman set his poems in type: he always preferred to deal with his poems in printed form instead of in manuscript. He often would revise directly on printed versions of his poetry; for him, poetry was very much a public act, and until the poem was in print he did not truly consider it a poem. Poetic manuscripts were never sacred objects for Whitman, who often simply discarded them; getting the poem set in type was the most important step in allowing it to begin to do its cultural work.

In 1860, while the nation seemed to be moving inexorably toward a major crisis between the slaveholding and free states, Whitman's poetic fortunes took a positive turn. In February, he received a letter from the Boston publishers William Thayer and Charles Eldridge, whose aggressive new publishing house specialized in abolitionist literature; they wanted to become the publishers of the new edition of Leaves of Grass. Whitman, feeling confirmed as an authentic poet now that he had been offered actual royalties, readily agreed, and Thayer and Eldridge invested heavily in the stereotype plates for Whitman's idiosyncratic book—over 450 pages of varied typeface and odd decorative motifs, a visually chaotic volume all carefully tended to by Whitman, who traveled to Boston to oversee the printing.

This was Whitman's first trip to Boston, then considered the literary capital of the nation. Whitman is a major part of the reason that America's literary center moved from Boston to New York in the second half of the nineteenth century, but in 1860 the superior power of Boston was still evident in its influential publishing houses, its important journals (including the new Atlantic Monthly), and its venerable authors (including Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, whom Whitman met briefly while in town). And, of course, Boston was the city of Emerson, who came to see Whitman shortly after his arrival in the city in March. In one of the most celebrated meetings of major American writers, the Boston Brahmin and the Yankee rowdy strolled together on the Boston Common, while Emerson tried to convince Whitman to remove from his Boston edition the new Enfans d'Adam cluster of poems (after 1860, Whitman dropped the French version of the name and called the cluster Children of Adam), works that portrayed the human body more explicitly and in more direct sexual terms than any previous American poems.

Whitman argued, as he later recalled, "that the sexual passion in itself, while normal and unperverted, is inherently legitimate, creditable, not necessarily an improper theme for poet." "That," insisted Whitman, "is what I felt in my inmost brain and heart, when I only answer'd Emerson's vehement arguments with silence, under the old elms of Boston Common." Emerson's caution notwithstanding, the body—the entire body—would be Whitman's theme, and he would not shy away from any part of it, not discriminate or marginalize or form hierarchies of bodily parts any more than he would of the diverse people making up the American nation. His democratic belief in the importance of all the parts of any whole, was central to his vision: the genitals and the arm-pits were as essential to the fullness of identity as the brain and the soul, just as, in a democracy, the poorest and most despised citizens were as important as the rich and famous. This, at any rate, was the theory of radical union and equality that generated Whitman' s work.

So he ignored Emerson's advice and published the Children of Adam poems in the 1860 edition along with his Calamus cluster; the first cluster celebrated male-female sexual relations, and the second celebrated the love of men for men. The body remained very much Whitman's subject, but it was never separate from the body of the text, and he always set out not just to write about sensual embrace but also to enact the physical embrace of poet and reader. Whitman became a master of sexual politics, but his sexual politics were always intertwined with his textual politics. Leaves of Grass was not a book that set out to shock the reader so much as to merge with the reader and make him or her more aware of the body each reader inhabited, to convince us that the body and soul were conjoined and inseparable, just as Whitman's ideas were embodied in words that ha physical body in the ink and paper that readers held physically in their hands. Ideas, Whitman's poems insist, pass from one person to another not in some ethereal process, but through the bodies of texts, through the muscular operations of tongues and hands and eyes, through the material objects of books.

Whitman was already well along on his radical program of delineating just what democratic affection would entail. He called his Calamus poems his most political work—"The special meaning of the Calamus cluster," Whitman wrote, "mainly resides in its Political significance"—since in those poems he was articulating a new kind of intense affection between males who, in the developing democratic society and emerging capitalistic system, were being encouraged to become fiercely competitive. Whitman countered this movement with a call for manly love, embrace, and affection. In giving voice to this new camaraderie, Whitman was also inventing a language of homosexuality, and the Calamus poems became very influential poems in the development of gay literature. In the nineteenth century, however, the Calamus poems did not cause as much sensation as Children of Adam because, even though they portrayed same-sex affection, they were only mildly sensual, evoking handholding, hugging, and kissing, while the Children of Adam poems evoked a more explicit genital sexuality. Emerson and others were apparently unfazed by Calamus and focused their disapprobation on Children of Adam. Only later in the century,when homosexuality began to be formulated in medical and psychological circles as an aberrant personality type, did the Calamus poems begin to be read by some as dangerous and "abnormal" and by others as brave early expressions of gay identity.

With the 1860 edition of Leaves, Whitman began the incessant rearrangement of his poems in various clusters and groupings. Whitman settled on cluster arrangements as the most effective way to organize his work, but his notion of particular clusters changed from edition to edition as he added, deleted, and rearranged his poems in patterns that often alter their meaning and recontextualize their significance. In addition to Calamus and Children of Adam, this edition contained clusters called Chants Democratic and Native American,

Messenger Leaves, and another named the same as the book, Leaves of Grass. This edition also contained the first book printings of "Starting from Paumanok" (here called "Proto-Leaf") and "Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking" (here called "A Word Out of the Sea"), along with over 120 other new poems. He also revised many of his other poems, including "Song of Myself" (here called simply "Walt Whitman"), and throughout the book he numbered his poetic verses, creating a Biblical effect. This was no accident, since Whitman now conceived of his project as involving the construction of what he called a "New Bible," a new covenant that would convert America into a true democracy.

Whitman's time in Boston—the first extended period he had been away from New York since his trip to New Orleans twelve years earlier—was a transforming experience. He was surprised by the way African Americans were treated much more fairly and more as equals than was the case in New York, sharing tables with whites at eating houses, working next to whites in printing offices, and serving on juries. He also met a number of abolitionist writers who would soon become close friends and supporters, including William Douglas O'Connor and John Townsend Trowbridge, both of whom would later write at length about Whitman. When he returned to New York at the end of May, his mood was ebullient. He was now a recognized author; the Boston papers had run feature stories about his visit to the city, and photographers had asked to photograph him (not only did he have a growing notoriety, he was a striking physical specimen at over six feet in height—especially tall for the time—with long, already graying hair and beard). All summer long he read reviews of his work in prominent newspapers and journals. And in November, Whitman's young publishers announced that Whitman's new project, a book of poems he called Banner at Day-Break, would be forthcoming.

The Beginning of the Civil War
But just as suddenly as Whitman's fortunes had turned so unexpectedly good early in 1860, they now turned unexpectedly bad. The deteriorating national situation made any business investment risky, and Thayer and Eldridge compounded the problem by making a number of bad business decisions. At the beginning of 1861, they declared bankruptcy and sold the plates of Leaves to Boston publisher Richard Worthington, who would continue to publish pirated copies of this edition for decades, creating real problems for Whitman every time he tried to market a new edition. Because of the large number of copies that Thayer and Eldridge initially printed, combined with Worthington's ongoing piracy, the 1860 edition became the most commonly available version of Leaves for the next twenty years and diluted the impact (as well as depressing the sales) of Whitman's new editions.

Whitman had dated the title page of his 1860 Leaves "1860-61," as if he anticipated the liminal nature of that moment in American history—the fragile moment, between a year of peace and a year of war. In February 1861 he saw Abraham Lincoln pass through New York on the way to his inauguration, and in April he was walking home from an opera performance when he bought a newspaper and read the headlines about Southern forces firing on Fort Sumter. He remembers a group gathering in the New York streets that night as those with newspapers read the story aloud to the others in the crowd. Even though no one was aware of the full extent of what was to come—Whitman, like many others, thought the struggle would be over in sixty days or so—the nation was in fact slipping into four years of the bloodiest fighting it would ever know. A few days after the firing on Fort Sumter, Whitman recorded in his journal his resolution "to inaugurate for myself a pure perfect sweet, cleanblooded robust body by ignoring all drinks but water and pure milk—and all fat meats late suppers—a great body—a purged, cleansed, spiritualised invigorated body." It was as if he sensed at some level the need to break out of his newfound complacency, to cease his Pfaff's beerhall habits and bohemian ways, and to prepare himself for the challenges that now faced the divided nation. But it would take Whitman some time before he was able to discern the form his war sacrifice would take.

Whitman's brother George immediately enlisted in the Union Army and would serve for the duration of the war, fighting in many of the major battles; he eventually was incarcerated as a prisoner-of-war in Danville, Virginia. George had a distinguished career as a soldier and left the service as a lieutenant colonel; his descriptions of his war experiences provided Walt with many of his insights into the nature of the war and of soldiers' feelings. Whitman's chronically ill brother Andrew would also enlist but would serve only three months in 1862 before dying, probably of tuberculosis, in 1863. Walt's other brothers—the hot-tempered Jesse (whom Whitman had to have committed to an insane asylum in 1864 after he physically attacked his mother), the recently-married Jeff (on whom fell the burden of caring for the extended family, including his own infant daughter), and the mentally-enfeebled Eddy—did not enlist, and neither did Walt, who was already in his early forties when the war began.

One of the haziest periods of Whitman's life, in fact, is the first year and a half of the war. He stayed in New York and Brooklyn, writing some extended newspaper pieces about the history of Brooklyn for the Brooklyn Daily Standard; these pieces, called "Brooklyniana" and consisting of twenty-five lengthy installments, form a book-length anecdotal history of the city Whitman knew so well but was now about to leave—he would return only occasionally for brief visits. It was during this period that Whitman first encountered casualties of the war that was already lasting far longer than anyone had anticipated. He began visiting wounded soldiers who were moved to New York hospitals, and he wrote about them in a series called "City Photographs" that he published in the New York Leader in 1862.

Whitman had in fact been visiting Broadway Hospital for several years, comforting injured stage drivers and ferryboat workers (serious injuries in the chaotic transportation industry in New York at the time were common). While he was enamoured with the idea of having literary figures as friends, Whitman's true preference for companions had always been and would continue to be working class men, especially those who worked on the omnibuses and the ferries ("all my ferry friends," as he called them), where he enjoyed the endless rhythms of movement, the open road, the back-and-forth journeys, with good companions. He reveled in the energy and pleasure of travel instead of worrying about destinations: "I cross'd and recross'd, merely for pleasure," he wrote of his trips on the ferry. He remembered fondly the "immense qualities, largely animal" of the colorful omnibus drivers, whom he said he enjoyed "for comradeship, and sometimes affection" as he would ride "the whole length of Broadway," listening to the stories of the driver and conductor, or "declaiming some stormy passage" from one of his favorite Shakespeare plays.

So his hospital visits began with a kind of obligation of friendship to the injured transportation workers, and, as the Civil War began taking its toll, wounded soldiers joined the transportation workers on Whitman's frequent rounds. These soldiers came from all over the country, and their reminiscences of home taught Whitman about the breadth and diversity of the growing nation. He developed an idiosyncratic style of informal personal nursing, writing down stories the patients told him, giving them small gifts, writing letters for them, holding them, comforting them, and kissing them. His purpose, he wrote, was "just to help cheer and change a little the monotony of their sickness and confinement," though he found that their effect on him was every bit as rewarding as his on them, for the wounded and maimed young men aroused in him "friendly interest and sympathy," and he said some of "the most agreeable evenings of my life" were spent in hospitals. By 1861, his New York hospital visits had prepared him for the draining ordeal he was about to face when he went to Washington, D.C., where he would nurse thousands of injured soldiers in the makeshift hospitals there. Whitman once said that, had he not become a writer, he would have become a doctor, and at Broadway Hospital he developed close friendships with many of the physicians, even occasionally assisting them in surgery. His fascination with the body, so evident in his poetry, was intricately bound to his attraction to medicine and to the hospitals, where he learned to face bodily disfigurations and gained the ability to see beyond wounds and illness to the human personalities that persisted through the pain and humiliation. It was a skill he would need in abundance over the next three years as he began yet another career.

To the Battlefield

With the nation now locked in an extended war, all of Whitman's deepest concerns and beliefs were under attack. Leaves of Grass had been built on a faith in union, wholeness, the ability of a self and a nation to contain contradictions and absorb diversity; now the United States had come apart, and Whitman's very project was now in danger of becoming an anachronism as the Southern states sought to divide the country in two. Leaves had been built, too, on a belief in the power of affection to overcome division and competition; his Calamus vision was of a "continent indissoluble" with "inseparable cities" all joined by "the life-long love of comrades." But now the young men of America were killing each other in bloody battles; fathers were killing sons, sons fathers, brothers brothers. Whitman's prospects for his "new Bible" that would bind a nation, build an affectionate democracy, and guide a citizenry to celebrate its unified diversity, were shattered in the fratricidal conflict that engulfed America.

Like many Americans, Whitman and his family daily checked the lists of wounded in the newspapers, and one day in December 1862 the family was jolted by the appearance of the name of " G. W. Whitmore" on the casualty roster from Fredericksburg. Fearful that the name was a garbled version of George Washington Whitman's, Walt immediately headed to Virginia to seek out his brother. Changing trains in Philadelphia, Whitman's pocket was picked on the crowded platform, and, penniless, he continued his journey to Washington, where, fortunately, he ran into William Douglas O'Connor, the writer and abolitionist he had met in Boston, who loaned him money. Futilely searching for George in the nearly forty Washington hospitals, he finally decided to take a government boat and army-controlled train to the battlefield at Fredericksburg to see if George was still there. After finding George's unit and discovering that his brother had received only a superficial facial wound, Whitman's relief turned to horror as he encountered a sight he would never forget: outside of a mansion converted into a field hospital, he came upon "a heap of amputated feet, legs, arms, hands, &c., a full load for a one-horse cart." They were, he wrote in his journal, "human fragments, cut, bloody, black and blue, swelled and sickening." Nearby were "several dead bodies . . . each cover'd with its brown woolen blanket." The sight would continue to haunt this poet who had so confidently celebrated the physical body, who had claimed that the soul existed only in the body, that the arms and legs were extensions of the soul, the legs moving the soul through the world and the hands allowing the soul to express itself. Now a generation of young American males, the very males on which he had staked the future of democracy, were literally being disarmed, amputated, killed. It was this amputation, this fragmenting of the Union—in both a literal and figurative sense—that Whitman would address for the next few years, as he devoted himself to becoming the arms and legs of the wounded and maimed soldiers in the Civil War hospitals. By running errands for them, writing letters for them, encircling them in his arms, Whitman tried, the best he could, to make them whole again.

This extraordinary hospital service, which took a tremendous toll on Whitman's own health as he spent countless long nights in the poorly ventilated wards, began spontaneously during his mission to George. He had fully anticipated that he would return to New York after determining that George was safe, but, after telegraphing his mother and the rest of the family that he had found George, he decided to stay with his brother for a few days. During this time he got to know the young soldiers, both Union and Confederate (he talked to a number of Southern prisoners of war). He assisted in the burial of the dead still lying on the bloody battlefield, where on December 13 there had been 18,000 Northern and Southern troops killed or wounded (and where, the next day, Robert E. Lee, sickened by the carnage, declined to attack General Ambrose Burnside's Union troops, even though they were in a vulnerable position).

Although Whitman had already written some of the poems that he would eventually publish in his Civil War book Drum-Taps (notably the "recruitment" poems like "Beat! Beat! Drums!" or "First O Songs for Prelude" that evoked the frightening yet exhilarating energy of cities arming for battle), it was only now, encountering the horrifying aftereffects of a real battle, that the powerful Civil War poems began to emerge. In the journal he kept while at George's camp, Whitman noted a "sight at daybreak—in a camp in front of the hospital tent on a stretcher, (three dead men lying,) each with a blanket spread over him—I lift up one and look at the young man's face, calm and yellow,—'tis strange! (Young man: I think this face of yours the face of my dead Christ!)" As would be the case with many of the poems in Drum-Taps, this journal sketch gradually was transformed into a poem:

A sight in camp in the daybreak gray and dim,
As from my tent I emerge so early sleepless.
As slow I walk in the cool fresh air the path near
by the hospital tent,
Three forms I see on stretchers lying, brought out
there untended lying,
Over each the blanket spread, ample brownish woolen
Gray and heavy blanket, folding, covering all.
. . .

Then to the third—a face nor child nor old, very calm,
beautiful yellow-white ivory;

Young man I think I know you—I think this face is the
face of the Christ himself,
Dead and divine and brother of all, and here he lies again.

The journal entry and poem offer a glimpse into how Whitman began restructuring his poetic project after the Civil War began. He was still writing a "new Bible" here, re-experiencing the Crucifixion in Fredericksburg. But this crucifixion does not redeem sinners and create an atonement with God so much as it posits divinity in everyone and mourns senseless loss: this one young man's death amidst the thousands is as significant as any in history. And, for Whitman, the massive slaughter of young soldier-Christs would create for all those who survived the war an obligation to construct a nation worthy of their great sacrifice. The America that Whitman would write of after the Civil War would be a more chastened, less innocent nation, a nation that had gone through its baptism in blood and one that would from now on be tested against the stern measure of this bloodshed.

During the days he spent with George's unit, Whitman often went into the makeshift hospital outside of which he had seen the pile of amputated limbs. "I do not see that I do much good to these wounded and dying," he wrote; "but I cannot leave them." As if to underscore his own attempts to hold the Union together, to reconcile rather than punish, to help love triumph over revenge, Whitman found himself particularly attracted to a nineteen-year-old Confederate soldier from Mississippi, who had had a leg amputated. Whitman visited him regularly in the battlefield hospital and then continued to visit him when the soldier was transferred to a Washington hospital. "Our affection is an affair quite romantic," he wrote. It wouldn't be the last intimacy he would experience with a Confederate soldier; at the end of the war, Whitman would enter the longest affectional relationship of his life with a former Confederate soldier named Peter Doyle. Something surprising—and perhaps unexpected even to Whitman—was happening to the Calamus emotions that he had described in 1860; the intimate expressions of manly friendship now became generalized, perhaps sublimated, in the poet's many close relationships with injured soldiers over the next three years. Extant letters from these soldiers clearly indicate the intensity of the love that these young men felt for Whitman, and Whitman's letters to them demonstrate that the affection was reciprocated. The language of this correspondence is difficult to categorize—it is partly that of lovers, partly that of friends, partly that of son to father and father to son (many of the letters to Whitman are addressed to "Dear Father"), and partly that of calm, wise, old counselor to confused, scared, and half-literate young men.

To Washington, D.C.

We cannot be certain when Whitman made his decision to stay in Washington, D.C. Like virtually all of the abrupt changes in his life, this one came with no planning, no advance notice, no preparation. He had gone to New Orleans on a similar spur-of-the-moment decision, just as he had suddenly quit teaching, just as he had packed up and gone to Boston, and just as he would years later decide overnight to settle in Camden, New Jersey. He was a profoundly unsettled person, who seemed able to shuck expected obligations and even relationships without much regret: he existed, as he said, on a kind of "Open Road": "The long brown path before me leading wherever I choose. . . . I will scatter myself among men and women as I go":

Allons! We must not stop here,
However sweet these laid-up stores, however
convenient this dwelling we cannot remain here,
However shelter'd this port and however calm
these waters we must not anchor here,
However welcome the hospitality that surrounds us
we are permitted to receive it but a little
while. ("Song of the Open Road")

One day Whitman simply left Brooklyn and New York and his family home to find his brother,and he never really came back. Perhaps the decision was made while he was in the field hospital, nursing the wounded and developing his relationship with the young Mississippi soldier; it was then that he wrote to his mother and told her he might seek employment for awhile in Washington, and it was then that he wrote to Emerson to ask for letters of recommendation to the Secretary of State and the Secretary of the Treasury, who were both acquaintances of Emerson. But perhaps his decision was conclusively made on his trip back from Fredericksburg to Washington, right after a somber New Year's Day 1863, when Whitman—quickly earning the trust and respect of the doctors at the battlefield—was put in charge of a trainload of casualties who had to be transferred to hospitals in the capital. While the wounded were being moved from a train to a steamboat for the trip up the Potomac, Whitman wandered among them, writing down their messages to their families, promising to send them, comforting the soldiers with his calm and concern. Perhaps by the time he got to Washington, determined to stay a few days in order to visit wounded soldiers from Brooklyn, he already knew at some level that he would have to remain there for the duration of the war.

His Boston connections were serving him well now; not only did he get letters of introduction from Emerson, but he got a room in the boarding house of William Douglas O'Connor and, through the efforts of Charles Eldridge—the publisher of the 1860 Leaves who was now assistant to the Army Paymaster—he got a part-time job as a copyist in the Paymaster's office. O'Connor and his wife Nellie provided Whitman his meals, and the poet began receiving contributions from his brother Jeff and others in Brooklyn who heard of his work in the hospitals. Whitman used what funds he had to buy small gifts for the wounded soldiers—candy and tobacco and flavored syrup and books—and he soon became a familiar figure in the hospitals. Prematurely gray and looking a decade or two older than his forty-three years, Whitman must have seemed to the soldiers—many of whom were still in their teens—some sort of tattered Saint Nick, handing out treats and bringing good cheer. Many referred to Whitman as "Old Man," and his presence was for some of the young men avuncular, for some paternal, and, for almost all, magical. Though he admired the Christian Commission, an agency organized by several churches that recruited volunteers to help in the hospitals, Whitman acted independently. He had nothing but contempt for the United States Sanitary commission, the governmental body charged with nursing the soldiers and repairing them so they could return to battle: to Whitman, these agents kept their distance from the soldiers and worked primarily for pay. Whitman's mission was different, as eccentric as his poetry: he was, in the act of nursing the wounded, trying to define and demonstrate a new kind of affection, a democratic camaraderie. He always insisted that he gained more from the soldiers than they received from him; he considered those years of hospital service "the greatest privilege and satisfaction . . . and, of course, the most profound lesson of my life."

Washington Years

To better support his hospital work, Whitman began seeking more remunerative employment and pounded the pavement in Washington, trying to exploit every connection he had in order to find a good job. The nation's capital was in a chaotic—even surreal—state in 1863, with unpaved, muddy streets and many half-built governmental edifices, including the Capitol building itself, with its vast new dome rising above the city, but still in only skeletal form. President Lincoln insisted that construction of the capital's buildings proceed at full pace, so, while the nation was tearing itself apart in civil war, the nation's capital was continuing to erect a unified and elegant governmental center, designed by the French architect Pierre L'Enfant. It was as if the capital had become a metaphor of the nation itself, half-built and in a struggle to determine whether it would end in fulfillment or destruction. Some of the newly constructed buildings almost immediately became hospitals, and when Whitman described the Civil War as turning the nation into a ward of casualties—America, "though only in her early youth," Whitman wrote, was "already to hospital brought"—he no doubt had in mind the way the emerging governmental center of the country was being transformed into a vast hospital. The U. S. Patent Office became a hospital in 1863, and Whitman noted the irony of the "rows of sick, badly wounded and dying soldiers" surrounding the "glass cases" displaying American inventions—guns and machines and other signs of progress. The wrecked bodies dispersed among the displays were what "progress" had brought, the result of new inventions that had created modern warfare. Washington was a noisy city during these years: the noise in the city was of construction; the noise just outside the city was of destruction, and the two activities conjoined in the dozens of makeshift Washington hospitals that held the shattered bodies of America's young men.

It is not possible to know how many soldiers Whitman actually nursed during his years in Washington, but the number was certainly in the tens of thousands (Whitman estimated he visited "from eighty thousand to a hundred thousand of the wounded and sick"). Walking the wards was for him like walking America: every bed contained a representative of a different region, a different city or town, a different way of life. He loved the varied accents and the diverse physiognomies. "While I was with wounded and sick in thousands of cases from the New England States, and from New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, and from Michigan, Wisconsin, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and all the Western States, I was with more or less from all the States, North and South, without exception." His trip to New Orleans had taken him across a good part of the nation, but it was in the hospital wards that he really traveled the United States and crossed boundaries otherwise not easily crossed: "I was with many rebel officers and men among our wounded, and gave them always what I had, and tried to cheer them the same as any. . . Among the black soldiers, wounded or sick, and in the contraband camps, I also took my way whenever in their neighborhood, and did what I could for them." And with all those he met, he both sought and offered love: "What an attachment grows up between us, started from hospital cots, where pale young faces lie & wounded or sick bodies," he wrote; "The doctors tell me I supply the patients with a medicine which all their drugs & bottles & powders are helpless to yield." He had become a physician after all, dispensing the medicine of hope and affection, the same medicine he hoped would heal a country, suture its wounds, repair its fracture. And he sought to dispense this medicine not only to soldiers on his hospital visits but to all Americans through his books.

Drum-Taps and the End of the War

During all the time of his hospital service, Whitman was writing poems, a new kind of poem for him, poems about the war experience, but almost never about battles—rather about the aftereffects of warfare: the moonlight illuminating the dead on the battlefields, the churches turned into hospitals, the experience of dressing wounds, the encounter with a dead enemy in a coffin, the trauma of battle nightmares for soldiers who had returned home. He gathered these poems along with the few he had written just before the war (the ones that Thayer and Eldridge has originally planned to publish as Banner at Day-Break) and worked on combining them in a book called Drum-Taps, the title evoking both the beating of the drums that accompanied soldiers into battle as well as the beating out of "Taps," the death march sounded at the burial of soldiers (originally played on the drums instead of the trumpet). After the burst of creativity in the mid- and late-1850s that resulted in the vastly expanded 1860 Leaves, Whitman had not written many poems until he got to Washington, where the daily encounters with soldiers opened a fresh vein of creativity, resulting in a poetry more modest in ambition and more muted in its claims, a poetry in whic death was no longer something indistinguishable from life ("Has any one supposed it lucky to be born?," Whitman had written in "Song of Myself"; "I hasten to inform him or her it is just as lucky to die, and I know it") but rather now revealed itself as something horrifying, grotesque, and omnipresent. The poems were so different from any that had appeared in Leaves, in fact, that Whitman originally assumed they could not be joined in the same book with those earlier poems. It would be a long, slow process that would eventually allow the absorption of Drum-Taps into Leaves of Grass.

As the war entered its final year, Whitman was facing physical and emotional exhaustion. 1864 began with one of his closest soldier-friends, Lewis Brown (with whom he had imagined living after the war was over), having his leg amputated; Whitman watched the operation through a window at Armory Square Hospital. In February and March, he traveled to the Virginia battlefront to nurse soldiers in field hospitals, then in April he stood for three hours watching General Burnside's troops march through Washington until he could pick out his brother George. He marched with him and gave him news from home. It would be the last time Whitman would see his brother before George was captured by Confederate troops after a battle in the fall. During the early summer, Whitman began to complain of a sore throat, dizziness, and a "bad feeling" in his head. Physician friends urged him to check into one of the hospitals he had been visiting, and they finally convinced him to go back to New York for a rest. Whitman took his manuscript of Drum-Taps with him to Brooklyn, hoping to publish it himself while he was there. Soon after he left Washington, the capital was attacked by the Confederates and many thought it was about to be captured; Whitman missed the most terrifying months of the war in the District of Columbia.

In Brooklyn, Whitman could not stop doing what had now become both a routine and a reason for his existence: he visited wounded soldiers in New York-area hospitals. But he also re-established contacts with old friends from the Pfaff's beerhall days, and he explored some new beer saloons with them. He wrote some more articles for the New York Times and other papers, and he took care of pressing family matters, including the commitment of his increasingly unstable brother Jesse to the Kings County Lunatic Asylum (where he would die six years later). The year ended with the arrival at the Whitman family home of George's personal items, including his war diary, which Whitman presumably read at this time. Though Whitman did not then know it, George had been sent to the Libby Prison in Richmond, Virginia, and would also serve time in military prisons in Salisbury, North Carolina, and finally in Danville, Virginia. In the hope of effecting George's release, Whitman began a campaign, in both newspaper articles and in letters to government officials, to support a general exchange of prisoners between the Confederacy and the Union, something Union generals were generally against because they believed such an exchange would benefit the South by returning troops to an army in desperate need of more men.

By the beginning of 1865, Whitman was very anxious to return to Washington, which he now considered to be his home. Friends there had been working on getting him a better government position, and O'Connor helped arrange a clerkship in the Indian Bureau of the Department of the Interior.

Whitman carried his Drum-Taps manuscript back to Washington, hoping that his increased income might allow him to publish the book. He moved to a new apartment, run by what he called a "secesh" landlady, and he began work in the Indian Bureau; his desk was in the U.S. Patent Office Building, which he had been visiting when it was used as a temporary hospital. As a clerk there, he met delegations of various Indian tribes from the West, and, just as he had come to know the geographical range of America through his hospital visits, so now he came to experience Native Americans. He had included Indians in his poems of America, cataloguing "the red aborigines" in "Starting from Paumanok," for example, celebrating the way they "charg[ed] the water and the land with names" (thus Whitman always preferred the name "Paumanok" to "Long Island" and often argued that aboriginal names for American places were always superior to names imported from Europe). The impact of Whitman's experiences at the Indian Bureau is apparent in such later poems as "Osceola" and "Yonnondio," memorializing what had come to seem to him the inevitable loss of native cultures.

George Whitman was released from Danville prison in February and returned to the Whitman home in Brooklyn in March. Whitman got a furlough from the Indian Bureau so that he could go see George, and, while in Brooklyn, he arranged with a New York printer for the publication of Drum-Taps. He signed a contract on April 1, and then, eight days later, while he was still in Brooklyn, the Civil War ended, with General Lee surrendering at Appomattox; five days after that, President Lincoln was assassinated at Ford's Theatre in Washington. It is ironic that Whitman, who spent most of the final two years of the war in the capital, was not there for its most traumatic and memorable events: he was back in New York during the main Confederate assault on Washington, and he was in New York again when the capital celebrated the end of the war and then mourned the loss of the president.

But the fact that Whitman was at his mother's home in Brooklyn led to one of his greatest poems, because he heard the news about Lincoln that April morning when the lilac bushes were blooming in his mother's dooryard, where he went to console himself and where he inhaled the scent of the lilacs, which became for him viscerally bound to the memory of Lincoln's death. He began writing his powerful elegy to Lincoln, "When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd," after Drum-Taps had already been delivered to the printer. He was able quickly to add to Drum-Taps, before the book was set in type, a brief poem about Lincoln's death, "Hush'd Be the Camps To-day," but his "Lilacs" elegy and his uncharacteristically rhymed and metered elegy for Lincoln, "O Captain! My Captain!," were written after the book was in press. Whitman therefore compiled a Sequel to Drum-Taps and had it printed up when he went back to Washington. In October he returned to Brooklyn to oversee the collating and binding of Sequel with Drum-Taps. He subtitled Sequel "'When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd and Other Pieces," and the very title registered the fragmentation that now characterized his poetry and his nation, very much shattered and in pieces (in "Lilacs," he described the "debris and debris" of the war's casualties and of the nation's current condition). He dated the Sequel 1865-66, offering another significantly hyphenated moment. Just as his 1860-61 Leaves marked the division between a nation at peace and a nation rent by war, so now did the sequel mark the reunification, a country moving from a year of war to the difficult first year of its reunified peace, from the horror of disintegration to the challenge of reconstruction.

In joining Drum-Taps and Sequel, Whitman created a book whose physical form echoed the challenges the postwar nation was facing as it entered the stormy period of Reconstruction. Whitman, too, was entering a period of poetic reconstruction, searching for ways to absorb the personal and national trauma of the Civil War into Leaves of Grass. As soon as the war ended, Whitman began to realize that the nation's hopes and history had to be reunified and that his original goals for Leaves of Grass—to project an optimistic democratic future for America—should not be abandoned but rather had to be integrated with the trauma of the Civil War. He faced the difficult task now of re-opening Leaves of Grass to find a way to absorb into his growing book the horror of the nation's fratricidal war.

Peter Doyle

Whitman's life was undergoing many changes in the weeks and months following the end of the war. One major event happened unexpectedly: on a stormy night, while riding the streetcar home after dinner at John and Ursula Burroughs' apartment, Whitman began talking with the conductor, a twenty-one-year-old Irish immigrant and former Confederate soldier named Peter Doyle. Doyle later recalled that Whitman was the only passenger, and "we were familiar at once—I put my hand on his knee—we understood." "From that time on," Doyle recalled, "we were the biggest sort of friends." It would be a friendship that would last for the rest of Whitman's life, and it was the most intense and romantic friendship the poet would have. Like Whitman, Doyle came from a large family, and Walt got to know Doyle's widowed mother and his siblings well; they came to be a second family for him. Whitman continued visiting soldiers in Washington hospitals during the first years following the war, as the number of hospitals gradually decreased and only the most difficult cases remained, but he now focused his attention increasingly on this single young former artilleryman from the South. Like so many of Whitman's closest friends, Doyle had only a rudimentary education and was from the working class.

These young men were reflections of Whitman's own youthful self, and he saw his poetry as speaking for them, putting into words what they could not, becoming the vocalization of the common man, without aristocratic airs, without elite schooling, without the weary formalities of tradition. For Whitman, then, Doyle represented America's future: healthy, witty, handsome, good-humored, hard-working, enamored of ood times, he gave Whitman's life some energy and hope during an otherwise bleak time. They rode the streetcars together, drank at the Union Hotel bar, took long walks outside the city, and quoted poetry to each other (Whitman recited Shakespeare, Doyle limericks). As Whitman's health continued to deteriorate in the late 1860s and early 1870s, the young former soldier nursed the aging former nurse and offered comfort to the poet just as Walt had to so many sick soldiers. And just as Whitman had picked up the germs of many of his poems from the stories soldiers had told him, so now he picked up from Doyle—who had been at Ford's Theatre the night John Wilkes Booth shot the president—the narrative of the assassination of Lincoln that he would use for his Lincoln lectures that he would deliver regularly in his later years.

Only in 1870 did the Doyle-Whitman relationship encounter severe problems. In some of the most intriguing and often-discussed entries in all of Whitman's notebooks, the poet records a cryptic resolution: "TO GIVE UP ABSOLUTELY & for good, from the present hour, this FEVERISH, FLUCTUATING, useless UNDIGNIFIED PURSUIT of 16.4—too long, (much too long) persevered in,--so humiliating." Critics eventually broke Whitman's numeric/alphabetic code (16 = P; 4 =D) and realized that Whitman was writing about his relationship with Doyle. Whitman goes on to urge himself to "Depress the adhesive nature/ It is in excess—making life a torment/ Ah this diseased, feverish disproportionate adhesiveness/ Remember Fred Vaughan." Vaughan, the close friend who probably inspired Whitman's Calamus poems, shared many traits with Doyle, and Whitman came to be jealous of both men when they did not return his love with the fervor he demanded. Soon after Whitman had met Doyle, he revised his Calamus sequence and removed the darker poems that expressed despair at being abandoned. But in 1870, those same dark emotions reappeared, though somehow this time Whitman and his partner managed to work their way through the trouble. They never lived together, though Walt dreamed of doing so, and, while their relationship would never regain the intensity it had in the mid-1860s, Doyle and Whitman continued to correspond and Doyle visited Whitman regularly for the next two decades after the poet moved to Camden, New Jersey.

The Good Gray Poet

Just when Whitman was feeling secure in his government employment, all hell broke loose. In May, 1865, a new Secretary of the Interior, James Harlan of Iowa, was sworn in and immediately set out to clean up his department, issuing a directive to abolish non-essential positions and to dismiss any employee whose "moral character" was questionable. Harlan was a formidable figure—a former U. S. Senator, Methodist minister, and president of Iowa Wesleyan College—and, when he saw Whitman's working copy of the 1860 Leaves of Grass (which the poet kept in his desk so that he could revise his poems during slow times at the office)—he was appalled. On June 20, Whitman (along with a number of other Interior Department employees) received a dismissal notice. Whitman quickly turned to his fiery friend O'Connor, who at that time worked in the Treasury Department. O'Connor, at some risk to his own career, took immediate action: he contacted the Assistant Attorney General, J. Hubley Ashton, who in turn talked with Harlan, only to find that not only was Harlan dead set against rescinding the dismissal order, he was ready to prevent Whitman from getting work in any other governmental agency. Ashton talked Harlan out of interfering with Whitman's appointment outside of Interior, and then he convinced Attorney General James Speed to hire Whitman in his office. Whitman became a clerk in the Attorney General's Office the next day, liked the work better (he aided in the preparation of requests for pardons from Confederates and later copied documents for delivery to the President and Cabinet members), and held the job until 1874, when he forfeited it because of ill health.

The whole flap over Whitman's firing seemed to be over in a day, but O'Connor, a highly regarded editor, novelist, and journalist in addition to a governmental servant, could not control his rage at Harlan and began to write a diatribe against the moralistic Secretary of the Interior and his "commission of an outrage"—the unceremonious dumping of Walt Whitman, "the Kosmical man—. . . the ADAMUS of the nineteenth century—not an individual, but MANKIND." O'Connor went on for nearly fifty pages, excoriating Harlan and sanctifying Whitman, offering a ringing endorsement of the poet's work and his life, emphasizing his hospital work and his love of country, and locating any indecency in Harlan's "horrible inanity of prudery," not in the poetry itself. Whitman offered O'Connor advice and suggestions on the piece, which O'Connor titled "The Good Gray Poet," creating an epithet that would attach itself to Whitman from then on. The pamphlet was published at the beginning of 1866 and had a major impact on the changing public perception of Whitman: though O'Connor did not downplay Whitman' frankness about the body, in his hands the transformation had begun from outrageous, immoral, indiscriminate, and radical poet of sex to saint-like, impoverished, aging poet of strong American values.

Reconstructing Leaves of Grass

In August and September of 1866, he took a leave from his job to go to New York and arrange for the printing of a new edition of Leaves . While there, he experienced the quickly changing and vastly expanding New York City—he wandered Central Park, took boat rides, and rekindled friendships with his stage-driver and ferry-boat-worker friends, and he oversaw the typesetting of Leaves, which finally appeared near the end of the year, even though the title page dated the book 1867.

The 1867 Leaves of Grass is the most carelessly printed and the most chaotic of all the editions. Whitman had problems with the typesetters, whose work was filled with errors. He bound the book in five distinct formats, some with only the new edition of Leaves of Grass, some with Leaves plus Drum-Taps, some with Leaves, Drum-Taps, and Sequel, some with all of these along with another new cluster called Songs Before Parting, and some with only Leaves and Songs Before Parting. He was obviously confused about what form his book should take. He always believed that the history of Leaves paralleled the history of himself, and that both histories embodied the history of America in the nineteenth century, so we can read the 1867 edition as Whitman's first tentative attempt to absorb the Civil War into his book. By literally sewing the printed pages of Drum-Taps and Sequel into the back of some of the issues, he creates a jarring textual effect, as pagination and font fracture while he adds his poems of war and division to his poems of absorption and nondiscrimination. The Union has been preserved, but this stripped and undecorated volume—the only edition of Leaves to contain no portrait of the poet—manifests a kind of forced reconciliation, a recognition that everything now has to be reconfigured. Leaves of Grass, like the nation, was now entering a long period of reconstruction.

Whitman would keep rearranging, pruning, and adding to Leaves in order to try to solve the structural problems so evident in the 1867 edition. By 1870, Leaves took a radically new shape when the fifth edition appeared (known as the 1871-72 edition because of the varying dates on the title page, but actually first printed in 1870). This complex edition, which, like the 1867, appeared in several versions, reveals Whitman's attempt to fully absorb the Civil War and its aftermath into his book, as the Drum-Taps poems are given their own "cluster" but also are scattered into other parts of Leaves, as the war experience bleeds out into the rest of the poems in sometimes subtle small additions and changes. This edition contains some revealing clusters of poems that appear here and then disappear in the much better known 1881 arrangement; in the 1871-72 edition, "Marches now the War is Over" and "Songs of Insurrection" are two clusters that capture the charged historical moment of Reconstruction that this edition responds to.

In the development from the 1867 Leaves to the better integrated 1871-1872 Leaves, Whitman was aided by the intervening efforts of the English writer William Michael Rossetti who edited Poems by Walt Whitman (1868), the first British edition of Whitman's work. Rossetti's arrangement of the poems helped Whitman see new possibilities in his work, specifically how Drum-Taps could be integrated into the larger project of Leaves of Grass. Rossetti believed, however, that Whitman's work had to be expurgated for the sensibilities of British readers, and, as the English edition progressed, Whitman took various positions on Rossetti's suggestions for censoring, once seeming to grant permission (through his friend Moncure Conway) to substitute words for "father-stuff" and "onanist," but later telling Rossetti that "I cannot and will not consent, of my own volition, to countenance an expurgated edition of my pieces." Rossetti's diplomatic approach was to alter no words in Whitman's poems (though he often changed titles). Instead, if a poem might offend too many readers or provoke censors, he omitted it altogether. Rossetti regarded Whitman as one the great poets of the English language and hoped that this selection of poems would augur a complete printing in England. Poems by Walt Whitman, reprinting approximately half of the 1867 Leaves of Grass, was critical for Whitman since it made him English friends who later would help sustain him financially and who would advance his reputation on both sides of the Atlantic.

Democratic Vistas and Other New Projects

In 1870 Whitman published Democratic Vistas and Passage to India (both works carried the date 1871 on their title pages). Passage to India, a volume of seventy-five poems with one-third of them new, was intended as a follow-up volume to Leaves of Grass, one that would inaugurate a new emphasis in Whitman's poetry on the "Unseen soul" and would thus complement his earlier songs of the "Body and existence." (Poor health eventually made Whitman curtail the plan.) The title poem moves from the material to the spiritual. Much of "Passage to India" celebrates the highly publicized work of engineers, especially the suggestive global linking accomplished by the transcontinental railroad, the Suez Canal, and the Atlantic cable. (Whitman's enthusiasm for engineering accomplishments was magnified because of his pride in his brother Jeff who had moved west in 1867 to become chief engineer charged with building and overseeing waterworks for St. Louis--a "great work–a noble position," Walt exclaimed). For Whitman, modern material accomplishments were most important as means to better understand the "aged fierce enigmas" at the heart of spiritual questions. "Passage to India" is grand in conception and has had many admirers, but the poem's rhetorical excesses–apparent even in its heavy reliance on exclamation marks–reveal a poet not so much at odds with his subject matter as flagging in inspiration.

Whitman's Stroke and Move to Camden

Whitman's steady routine of life–mixing work as a Washington clerk with his ongoing literary projects–was fundamentally altered when a series of blows turned 1873 into one of the worst years in his life. On January 23, he suffered a stroke; in February his sister-in-law Mattie (wife of his brother Jeff) died of cancer; in May his beloved mother began to fail. Whitman—partially paralyzed, with weakness in his left leg and arm—managed to travel to Camden, New Jersey, arriving three days before his mother's death. He returned to Washington at the beginning of June, hoping to resume his job. But by the middle of the month he was back in Camden to stay, moving into a working-class neighborhood with his brother George (a pipe inspector) and his wife Lou.

Acts of Memory

Throughout the Camden years, despite his physical decline, the poet published steadily. Not long after his stroke, for example, he expanded and reworked journalism and notebook entries in composing Memoranda During the War (1875-1876). The book was published at the end of Reconstruction when a rise in immigration and racial conflict strained national cohesion, and, to Whitman's mind, lent urgency to his argument that affectionate bonds between men constituted the vital core of American democracy. The prose in this volume is taut, concise, detailed, and unflinching. Although the Civil War received more press coverage than any previous war, Whitman worried that its true import would be lost, that what he called "the real war" would never be remembered. He lamented the lack of attention to the common soldiers and to the fortitude and love he had seen in his many visits with soldiers in the hospitals.

Harry Stafford

In addition to his literary friends, Whitman continued to maintain key emotional ties with working-class men, often substantially younger men. Whitman's relationship with Doyle gradually dwindled as the two men saw less and less of one another. Harry Stafford displaced Doyle as his boy, his "darling son." Stafford, an emotionally unstable young man of eighteen when Whitman first met him in 1876, did odd jobs at the Camden New Republic. The Stafford family regarded Whitman as a type of mentor and were pleased with the poet's interest in the young man. Stafford's mother was especially solicitous of Whitman as he strove to nurse himself back to health after his stroke through the restorative powers of the natural scene at the Stafford's farm near Timber Creek, approximately ten miles from Camden. The nature of Whitman's relationship with Stafford remains mysterious. We know that the poet and Harry wrestled together (leaving John Burroughs dismayed at the way they "cut up like two boys"); that a friendship ring given by Whitman to Stafford went back and forth numerous times (with anguished rhetoric) as the relationship developed; and that they shared a room together when traveling. Whitman and Stafford also discussed attractive women (as the poet had with Peter Doyle). After Stafford married in 1884, the two men maintained a friendly relationship.

The 1881-1882 edition
Whitman's work, repeatedly endorsed by English readers and by other European admirers, especially in France and Germany, received a further boost in 1881 when a mainstream Boston publisher, James R. Osgood & Co., decided to issue Leaves of Grass under its imprint. As was the case over twenty years earlier when Thayer and Eldridge offered him respectable Boston publication, Whitman could now anticipate the benefits of high visibility, good distribution, and institutional validation (a paradoxical idea, of course, for a renegade poet). Once again, however, things soon went awry. Oliver Stevens, the Boston district attorney, wrote to Osgood on March 1, 1882: "We are of the opinion that this book is such a book as brings it within the provisions of the Public Statutes respecting obscene literature and suggest the propriety of withdrawing the same from circulation and suppressing the editions thereof." The New England Society for the Suppression of Vice encouraged this proceeding, but numerous reviews had also predicted trouble for the book.

Osgood attempted to strike a compromise, and Whitman, too, thinking that the changes might involve only ten lines "& half a dozen words or phrases," worked to find a way around the ban. But Whitman's position stiffened once he realized how extensive the changes would have to be. The offending passages appeared in "Song of Myself," "From Pent-Up Aching Rivers," "I Sing the Body Electric," "A Woman Waits for Me," "Spontaneous Me," "Native Moments," "The Dalliance of the Eagles," "By Blue Ontario's Shore," "To a Common Prostitute," "Unfolded Out of the Folds," "The Sleepers," and "Faces." For most poems, particular passages or words were found offensive, but the district attorney insisted that "A Woman Waits for Me" and "To a Common Prostitute" had to be removed altogether.

Intriguingly, the "Calamus" section and other poems treating male-male love raised no concern, perhaps because the male-male poems infrequently venture beyond hand-holding and hugging while the male-female poems are frank about copulation. Whitman wrote to Osgood: "The list whole & several is rejected by me, & will not be thought of under any circumstances." Osgood ceased selling Leaves and gave the plates to Whitman, who took them to Philadelphia publisher Rees Welsh. Rees Welsh printed around 6,000 copies of the book, and sales, initially at least, were brisk. Within the Rees Welsh company, David McKay in particular was supportive of Whitman; soon McKay began publishing Whitman through his own firm. The suppression controversy had another benefit as well: it helped restore an important friendship with O'Connor, who came to Whitman's defense once again after a period of estrangement.

In the year Leaves was banned in Boston, Whitman wrote "Memorandum at a Venture," which argues that the "current prurient, conventional treatment of sex is the main formidable obstacle" to the advancement of women in politics, business, and social life. Whitman's depictions of women have received a fair amount of criticism (D. H. Lawrence, for one, claimed that Whitman reduced women to wombs). Leaves of Grass clearly emphasized motherhood, but Whitman valued other roles for women as well. In fact, the women he most celebrated were those who challenged traditional ways, including Margaret Fuller, Frances Wright, George Sand, Delia Bacon, and others. Some nineteenth-century women criticized Whitman: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, for example, was understandably troubled by the skewed understanding of women's sexuality suggested by "A Woman Waits for Me," even as she endorsed the freedom and assertiveness Whitman insisted on when he said, in the same poem, that women must "know how to swim, row, ride, wrestle, shoot, run, strike, retreat, advance, resist, defend themselves."

Most women of his day looked beyond his occasional lapses. Many wrote him letters of appreciation for the liberating value of his poetry. In addition, notable writers ranging from Kate Chopin to Charlotte Perkins Gilman to Edith Wharton admired his work both because of what he said about women and because his vision of comradeship–ideally based on mutuality and equality, whatever the reality of his own relationships–lent itself readily to a critique of hierarchical relations between men and women.

Life Stories

Specimen Days was issued as a prose counterpart to the 1881-1882 Leaves of Grass. Whitman described it as the "most wayward, spontaneous, fragmentary book ever printed," and, as an autobiography, the book is anomalous. Whitman sheds little light on what remains a central mystery: the development of the first edition of Leaves of Grass. After a brief section on family background, Whitman moves rapidly past his "long foreground" to focus instead on the war (relying heavily on material used in Memoranda). Aware that no other major writer could match his direct and extensive connection to the war, he continues to argue that the hospitals were central to the war just as the war was definitional for American experience.

Following this section, Whitman shifts to nature reflections evoked by the Stafford farm setting at Timber Creek where Whitma underwent a self-imposed, idiosyncratic, but effective regimen of physical therapy (including wrestling with saplings and taking mud baths) to restore his body from the ravages of stroke. He also describes his 1879 trip to attend the quarter-centennial celebration of the Kansas settlement and to visit his brother Jeff in St. Louis. Whitman journeyed as far as Denver and the Rockies, finding in the landscape a grandeur that matched his earlier imaginings of it and a ruggedness that justified his approach to American poetry. Consistently in Specimen Days, Whitman kept his standing in the national pantheon in mind. In sections such as "My Tribute to Four Poets" and the accounts of the deaths of Emerson, Longfellow, and Carlyle, Whitman seeks to establish a newly magnanimous position in relation to his key predecessors. Showing a generosity rarely displayed in his criticism before, he now praises fellow poets he once derided as "jinglers, and snivellers, and fops." Specimen Days has only recently begun to get much critical attention, and it is now being read as an eccentric and experimental work, a prose counterpart to Whitman's radically new poetry.

328 Mickle Street

In the 1880s, as Whitman was compiling authoritative versions of his writings and overseeing various accounts of his life, he was also putting his domestic arrangements in better order. He had been living with his brother George's family, but when George retired and moved the family to a farm outside of town, Walt refused to leave Camden. With money saved from royalties from the 1881-1882 edition of Leaves combined with a loan from publisher George W. Childs, the poet bought "a little old shanty of my own." In March 1884 he moved into the only home he ever owned. Lacking a furnace and in need of repairs, the two-story frame house at 328 Mickle Street suited Whitman well, he said. His personal room quickly took on a distinctive aura: many visitors noted how the poet resided in a sea of chaotic papers.

The Annexes
After the suppression controversy, Whitman retained the structure of Leaves of Grass, relegating the poetry written after 1881 to appendices—or, as the poet called them, annexes—to the main book. Typically, new material appeared in separate publications first, as, for example, was the case with November Boughs (1888), a volume containing sixty-four new poems gathered under the title "Sands at Seventy" and various prose works previously published in periodicals. These prose writings are effective, especially "Father Taylor (and Oratory)," "Robert Burns as Poet and Person," and "Slang in America." Good-Bye My Fancy (1891) was published initially as a miscellany of prose and verse. Whitman later printed thirty-one poems from the book in "Good-Bye my Fancy . . . 2d Annex" to Leaves of Grass (1891-1892). Whitman lacked the poetic power of his early years, but he was still capable of writing engaging poems such as "Osceola," "A Twilight Song," and "To the Sun-Set Breeze."

Final Illness and Death

Whitman seemed to endure his final months through sheer force of will. He was in fact very sick, beset by an array of ailments. For some time, he had been making preparations for the end. He had a large mausoleum built in Camden's Harleigh Cemetery, on a plot given to him in 1885, shortly after the cemetery was opened. The large tomb was paid for in part by Whitman with money donated to him so that he could buy a house in the country and in part by Thomas Harned, one of his literary executors. (Eventually, several family members–Hannah, George, Louisa, Edward, and his parents—were reinterred in the same tomb, on which the inscription reads simply "Walt Whitman.") On December 24, 1891, the poet composed his last will and testament. In an earlier will of 1873 he had bequeathed his silver watch to Peter Doyle, but now, with Doyle largely absent from his life, he made changes, giving his gold watch to Traubel and a silver one to Harry Stafford.

Whitman was nursed in his final illness by Frederick Warren Fritzinger ("Warry"), a former sailor. Whitman liked Warry's touch, which blended masculine strength and feminine tenderness. The poet's last words–a request to be moved in bed, "Shift, Warry"–were addressed to Fritzinger. The poet died on March 26, 1892, his hand resting in that of Traubel. The cause of death was miliary tuberculosis, with other contributing factors. The autopsy revealed that one lung had completely collapsed and the other was working only at one-eighth capacity; his heart was "surrounded by a large number of small abscesses and about two and half quarts of water." Daniel Longaker, Whitman's physician in the final year, noted that the autopsy showed Whitman to be free of alcoholism or syphilis. He emphatically rejected the "slanderous accusations that debauchery and excesses of various kinds caused or contributed to his break-down."

Talking Back to Whitman

In "Poets to Come" Whitman claimed: "I am a man who, sauntering along without fully stopping, turns a casual look upon you and then averts his face, / Leaving it to you to prove and define it, / Expecting the main things from you." That casual look has had an uncanny impact as countless writers have sought to complete Whitman's project and thereby to better know themselves. The responses have been varied, ranging from indictments to accolades. Poetic responses to Whitman sometimes fall into his cadences and in other ways mimic his style, but many poets have understood, with William Carlos Williams, that the only way to write like Whitman is to write unlike Whitman. To an unusual degree, however, his legacy has not been limited to the genre in which he made his fame. Beyond poetry, Whitman has had an extensive and unpredictable impact on fiction, film, architecture, music, painting, dance, and other arts.

Whitman has enjoyed great international renown. Perhaps William Faulkner can match Whitman's impact on South America, but no U.S. writer, including Faulkner, has had a comparable influence in as many parts of the world. Leaves of Grass has been translated in complete editions in Spain, France, Germany, Italy, China, and Japan, and partial translations have appeared in all major languages but Arabic. Whitman's importance stems not only from his literary qualities but also from his standing as a prophet of liberty and revolution: he has served as a major icon for socialists and communists. On the other hand, he has also been invoked on occasion by writers and politicians on the far right, including the National Socialists in Germany. In general, Whitman's influence internationally has been most felt in liberal circles as a writer who articulated the beauty, power, and always incompletely fulfilled promise of democracy.

"My book and the war are one," Whitman once said. He might have saidas well that his book and the U.S. are one. Whitman has been of crucial importance to minority writers who have talked back to him–extending, refining, rewriting, battling, endorsing, and sometimes rejecting the work of a writer who strove so insistently to define national identity and t imagine an inclusive society. Recent critics sometimes decry Whitman's shortcomings and occasional failure to live up to his own finest ideals. But minority writers from Langston Hughes to June Jordan and Yusef Komunyakaa have, with rare exceptions, warmed to an outlook extraordinary for its sympathy, generosity, and capaciousness. Whitman's absorption by people from all walks of life justifies his bold claim of 1855 that "the proof of a poet is that his country absorbs him as affectionately as he has absorbed it." Over a century after his death, Whitman is a vital presence in American cultural memory. Television shows depict him. Musicians allude to him. Schools and bridges are named after him. Truck stops, apartment complexes, parks, think tanks, summer camps, corporate centers, and shopping malls bear his name. Look for him, just as he said you should, under your bootsoles.

Credits: Ed Folsom, The University of Iowa and Kenneth M. Price, The College of William and Mary

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